Introduction to Manual Testing Interview Questions
Many people have misconceptions that nowadays, companies don’t hire manual testers; automation is required only in the market. But this is not true. No doubt, as the companies are moving towards Automation so there is a high demand for Automation testers, but in any project, all the things can not be automated, there is always a scope of manual testing and manual testers too are required to have deep knowledge about all the testing types, test scenarios, differences between them, etc. There are many certifications of testing, and as a beginner or a manual tester, it is recommended to clear ISTQB certification as it gives deep knowledge about the core concepts of testing.
If you are looking for a job related to Manual Testing, you need to prepare for the 2021 Manual Testing Interview Questions. It is true that every interview is different as per the different job profiles. Here, we have prepared the important Manual Testing Interview Questions and Answers, which will help you get success in your interview.
In this 2021 Manual Testing Interview Questions article, we shall present the 10 most important and frequently asked Manual Testing interview questions. These interview questions are divided into two parts are as follows:
Part 1 – Manual Testing Interview Questions (Basic)
This first part covers basic Interview Questions and Answers.
Q1. What is the difference between Verification and Validation in Software Testing?
Verification involves the static process of verifying the documents, code, and design in order to check whether the software conforms to the requirements mentioned in the documents (SRS). It involves Walkthrough, Inspection and Code Review. Whereas Validation is a dynamic process which involves executing the code and check whether the software is working as expected or not. It involves finding the bugs, which are done by a testing team by the execution of code. Black box testing, white box testing, and grey-box testing are a part of testing in Software Validation.
Q2. What is the difference between Test Driver and Test Stub in Software Testing?
Test Driver and Test Stub are basically a piece of code that works as a substitute for the original undeveloped code in order to perform testing. Drivers are used in a bottom-up approach and are basically used as calling modules if the internal modules are implemented and need to be tested, whereas Stubs are used in a top-down approach and used where the main module is prepared, but the called modules are yet not done.
For example, in a web application, there are 3 modules, i.e. Login, Home, Users. If the Login module is prepared but not the Home and Users, the substitute “called” module for Home and Users is Stub as the main module Login is prepared. But if the module Home and Users are prepared but the main module Login is not prepared, so the substitute “calling” module for Login is called Driver.
Q3. At what point in an application should we start testing?
Once the requirements are gathered in a project, test planning, test strategy, and test case creation or the whole testing process should get started. Today almost all the projects follow Agile methodology, so the requirements are not fixed in the starting, but the user stories for the new features going to implement in a particular release are provided to the testers. So the test planning and test case creation or test script creation (in case of Automation testing) has started along with the development of the software. Most of the companies follow Test Driven Development (TDD) approach to develop the software in which test cases are written prior to the code, and the code is written in accordance to validate the test.
Q4. What points need to be kept in mind while testing web and mobile applications or differences in testing the two?
Testing web and mobile applications are different. So different scenarios need to be tested while testing them:
- Browser support is tested for web applications like Chrome, Firefox, IE, etc. whereas mobile application is tested on various OS versions like Android 7, 8, 9, etc.
- Application crash on various scenarios and hindrance of other applications in between is tested in mobile application whereas Session and Cookies testing are performed in web applications.
- In mobile applications, the application is tested on various mobile screen sizes whether the elements are properly aligned as per screen size, whereas the web application is tested on various desktop resolutions.
- Hand and Voice gestures like pinching, swiping, voice recognition are tested on mobile devices, whereas simple typing and copy-paste features are tested in web applications.
Q5. Is it ok to use an Agile model for testing for small projects?
Agile is an incremental and iterative approach for software development and is more feasible for flexible and large projects where requirements keep on changing with time. For small projects where the requirements are not too large, Agile should not be preferred as it would cost more project budget as it involves various teams working simultaneously and can hamper overall time in software delivery.
Part 2 – Manual Testing Interview Questions (Advanced)
Let us now have a look at the advanced Interview Questions and Answers.
Q6. What is Software Testing Life Cycle?
Software Testing Life Cycle (STLC) involves a step-by-step procedure that is followed while testing any software application to ensure that the software works as expected. Below given are the various phases of STLC:
- Requirement Gathering
- Test Planning
- Test Analysis
- Test Design
- Test Environment Setup
- Test Execution
- Test Closure
Q7. What is negative testing, and why is it performed?
Negative Testing, also known as false testing or error path testing, includes testing of any software application under unexpected conditions. Positive testing only ensures that the software is working as expected, whereas negative testing tells how the software will behave in uneven/ unexpected conditions. It is done to ensure the stability of an application.
Suppose for an e-commerce application, negative test cases can be if the person adds some extra/malicious content in the URL then what should be the output if the application can handle 1000 users at a time, how will it behave if users increases by 3 times, etc.
Q8. Difference between bug, defect, and failure with respect to Software Testing?
There is a minute difference between defect, bug, and failure. If any feature is not working as expected or the actual and expected result is different. And this issue is found by the developer in the development phase only; then, it is called a defect. When the defect is left in the development phase and is found by the tester in the testing phase, then that defect is known as a bug; when the software is delivered to the end-user, and the customer finds any issue, it is known as a failure.
Q9. What is Equivalence Partitioning Testing?
It is a type of black-box testing that can be applied at any level like Unit, Integration and System test. In this testing, the input range is divided into an equivalent group that is expected to exhibit the same behavior for every range. For example, if the password textbox accepts the value between 5-15 characters, then the range can be 5-15, which is valid, more than 15, which is invalid, 0-5, which is invalid.
Q10. What is Test Coverage? Is it possible to get 100% test coverage?
Test coverage is basically a quality metric that represents the amount of application code covered by the test cases or the amount of testing done by the test cases created. It helps to monitor the quality of testing. More test cases covering maximum areas of an application helps to achieve maximum test coverage, reducing failure chances. Though it is not possible to achieve 100% test coverage, we can make sure that test cases should be created of every branch, statement covering maximum areas of code.
This has been a guide to the list of Manual Testing Interview Questions and Answers so that the candidate can crackdown these Manual Testing Interview Questions easily. Here in this post, we have studied top Manual Testing Interview Questions, which are often asked in interviews. You may also look at the following articles to learn more –