Updated March 27, 2023
Introduction to Manual Testing Interview Questions
The following article provides an outline for Manual Testing Interview Questions. Many people have misconceptions that nowadays, companies don’t hire manual testers; Automation is required only in the market. But this is not true. No doubt, as companies are moving towards Automation so there is a high demand for Automation testers, but in any project, all things can not be automated; there is always a scope of manual Testing, and manual testers to are required to have deep knowledge about all the testing types, test scenarios, differences between them, etc. There are many testing certifications, and as a beginner or a manual tester, it is recommended to clear ISTQB certification as it gives deep knowledge about the core testing concepts.
If you are looking for a job related to Manual Testing, you must prepare for the 2023 Manual Testing Interview Questions. Every interview is indeed different as per the various job profiles. Here, we have prepared the critical Manual Testing Interview Questions and Answers, which will help you get success in your interview.
This 2023 Manual Testing Interview Questions article will present the ten most important and frequently asked Manual Testing interview questions. These interview questions are divided into two parts as follows:
Part 1 – Manual Testing Interview Questions (Basic)
This first part covers basic Interview Questions and Answers.
Q1. What is the difference between Verification and Validation in Software Testing?
Verification involves the static process of verifying the documents, code, and design to check whether the software confirms the requirements mentioned in the documents (SRS). It involves Walkthrough, Inspection, and Code Review. Whereas Validation is a dynamic process that involves executing the code and checking whether the software is working as expected or not. It involves finding the bugs, which a testing team does through the execution of code. Black box testing, white box testing, and grey box testing are part of Testing in Software Validation.
Q2. What is the difference between Test Driver and Test Stub in Software Testing?
Test Driver and Test Stub are basically a piece of code that replaces the original undeveloped code to perform Testing. Drivers are used in a bottom-up approach and are basically used as calling modules if the internal modules are implemented and need to be tested. In contrast, Stubs are used in a top-down approach where the main module is prepared, but the called modules are not yet done.
For example, a web application has three modules, i.e., Login, Home, and Users. If the Login module is prepared but not the Home and Users, the substitute “called” module for Home and Users is Stub as the main module Login is ready. But if the module Home and Users are prepared but the main module Login is not prepared, the substitute “calling” module for login is called Driver.
Q3. At what point in an application should we start testing?
Once the requirements are gathered in a project, test planning, test strategy, and test case creation or the whole testing process should get started. Today almost all the projects follow Agile methodology, so the requirements are not fixed in the beginning, but the user stories for the new features implemented in a particular release are provided to the testers. So the test planning and test case creation or test script creation (in the case of Automation testing) has started along with the development of the software. Most companies follow the Test Driven Development (TDD) approach to develop the software in which test cases are written before the code, which is written in accordance to validate the test.
Q4. What points need to be considered while testing web and mobile applications or differences in testing the two?
Testing web and mobile applications are different.
So different scenarios need to be tested while testing them:
- Browser support is tested for web applications like Chrome, Firefox, IE, etc., whereas mobile application is tested on various OS versions like Android 7, 8, 9, etc.
- Application crash on various scenarios and hindrance of other applications in between is tested in mobile application, whereas Session and Cookies testing is performed in web applications.
- In mobile applications, the application is tested on various mobile screen sizes, whether the elements are correctly aligned as per screen size. In contrast, the web application is tested on multiple desktop resolutions.
- Hand and Voice gestures like pinching, swiping, and voice recognition are tested on mobile devices, whereas simple typing and copy-paste features are tested in web applications.
Q5. Is it ok to use an Agile model for testing small projects?
Agile is an incremental and iterative approach to software development and is more feasible for flexible and large projects where requirements keep changing with time. Agile should not be preferred for small projects where the conditions are not too large. It would cost more project budget as it involves various teams working simultaneously and can hamper overall time in software delivery.
Part 2 – Manual Testing Interview Questions (Advanced)
Let us now have a look at the advanced Interview Questions and Answers.
Q6. What is Software Testing Life Cycle?
Software Testing Life Cycle (STLC) involves a step-by-step procedure while testing any software application to ensure the software works as expected. Below given are the various phases of STLC:
- Requirement Gathering
- Test Planning
- Test Analysis
- Test Design
- Test Environment Setup
- Test Execution
- Test Closure
Q7. What is negative Testing, and why is it performed?
Negative Testing, also known as false Testingor error path testing, includes testing any software application under unexpected conditions. Positive Testing only ensures that the software works as expected, whereas negative Testing tells how the software will behave in rough/ unexpected situations. It is done to ensure the stability of an application.
For an e-commerce application, negative test cases can be if the person adds some extra/malicious content in the URL. Then what should be the output if the application can handle 1000 users at a time? How will it behave if users increase by three times, etc.?
Q8. What is the difference between bug, defect, and failure with respect to Software Testing?
There is a minute difference between defect, bug, and failure. If any feature is not working as expected or the actual and expected result is different. And this issue is found by the developer in the development phase only; then, it is called a defect. When the defect is left in the development phase and seen by the tester in the testing phase, it is known as a bug; when the software is delivered to the end-user and the customer finds any issue, it is known as a failure.
Q9. What is Equivalence Partitioning Testing?
It is a type of black-box Testing that can be applied at any level, like Unit, Integration, and System test. This Testing divides the input range into an equivalent group expected to exhibit the same behavior for every field. For example, if the password textbox accepts a value between 5-15 characters, then the range can be 5-15, valid; more than 15, invalid; and 0-5, invalid.
Q10. What is Test Coverage? Is it possible to get 100% test coverage?
Test coverage is a quality metric representing the amount of application code covered by the test cases or the amount of Testing done by the test cases created. It helps to monitor the quality of Testing. More test cases covering maximum areas of an application help to achieve full test coverage, reducing failure chances. Though achieving 100% test coverage is impossible, we can ensure that test cases should be created for every branch, with statements covering maximum areas of code.
This has been a guide to the list of Manual Testing Interview Questions and Answers so that the candidate can crack down on these Manual Testing Interview Questions easily. In this post, we have studied the top Manual Testing Interview Questions often asked in interviews. You may also look at the following articles to learn more –