Updated November 23, 2023
Diluted EPS Formula (Table of Contents)
Diluted EPS Formula
Where,
Convertible Securities = Convertible preferred shares + Convertible debt + Stock options + warrants
Examples
Suppose Company ABC has the following structure of shares and dilutive securities at the end of a fiscal year:
 Weighted average Common shares outstanding: 800,000
 Convertible preferred shares: 10,000, convertible into 5 shares of common stock each and paying a dividend of $10 per share
 Convertible debt: $20,000 of 5% bonds convertible into 5,000 shares
 Stock Options outstanding at the beginning of the year: 10,000 with an exercise price of $45 (Average market price of company shares during the year was $55 per share)
 Net Income before preferred dividend=$2,000,000, tax rate 25%
Particulars ($)  Basic EPS  Diluted EPS 
Net income  20,00,000  20,00,000 
Less: Preferred Dividend  1,00,000  – 
Add: Aftertax cost of interest.  –  750 
Numerator  19,00,000  20,00,750 
Weighted average number of common shares outstanding  8,00,000  8,00,000 
Additional shares are issued if preferred shares converted  –  50,000 
Additional shares are issued if the debt is converted.  5,000  
Additional shares issued If options are exercised (inthemoney)  –  181.8 
Denominator  8,00,000  8,56,818 
EPS  2.38  2.34 
 Diluted EPS = (20,00,000 + 750) / (8,00,000 + 50,000 + 5,000 + 1,818)
 Diluted EPS = 20,00,750 / 8,56,818
 Diluted EPS = 2.34
Explanation of Diluted EPS Formula
 Definition: Diluted EPS represents a company’s earnings performance (income per share), assuming all its dilutive convertible securities are exercised. Convertible securities could be preferred shares, debentures, unexercised stock options, and warrants. Diluted EPS considers what would happen if the holder exercises the dilutive securities. Since dilutive securities effectively increase the number of shares outstanding, EPS falls.
 Dilutive vs Antidilutive securities: Each of these convertible securities needs to be dilutive, which means that their inclusion in the computation of diluted EPS should not yield a higher EPS value than basic EPS.
For example, consider Company AD has the following structure of shares and convertible securities at the end of a fiscal year:
 Weighted average Common shares outstanding: 800,000
 Convertible preferred shares: 10,000, convertible into 3 shares of common stock of each and paying a dividend of $10 per share
 Net income before preferred dividend=$2,000,000
Particulars ($)  Basic EPS  Diluted EPS, if converted 
Net income  20,00,000  20,00,000 
Less: Preferred Dividend  1,00,000  – 
Numerator  19,00,000  20,00,000 
Weighted average number of common shares outstanding  8,00,000  8,00,000 
Additional shares are issued if preferred shares converted  –  30,000 
Denominator  8,00,000  8,30,000 
EPS  2.38  2.41 
Diluted EPS Formula = Net Income(Before Preferred Dividends)+After Tax Cost of Interest / (Common Shares Outstanding +Additional Shares Against Exercise of Convertible Securities)
 Diluted EPS = (20,00,000 + 0) / (8,00,000 + 30,000)
 Diluted EPS = 20,00,000 / 8,30,000
 Diluted EPS = 2.41
Since Diluted EPS (if preferred are converted) exceeds basic EPS, these convertible preferred shares are antidilutive and will not be included in the computation of diluted EPS. Hence, diluted EPS is always less than or equal to basic EPS.
 Computation for convertible preferred shares/debentures: In these cases, diluted EPS is calculated using the ifconverted method, which assumes that the securities had been converted at the beginning of the year.
For preferred shares, after conversion, there would be no preferred shares outstanding; hence no preferred dividends would be given, and additional common shares would be issued, which would increase common shares’ outstanding value. Consider the above example of company ABC assuming only convertible preferred shares are there, and other convertibles are absent. The computation would be as follows:
Particulars  Basic EPS  Diluted EPS 
Net income  20,00,000  20,00,000 
Less: Preferred Dividend  1,00,000  – 
Numerator  19,00,000  20,00,000 
Weighted average number of common shares outstanding  8,00,000  8,00,000 
Additional shares are issued if preferred shares are converted  –  50,000 
Denominator  8,00,000  8,50,000 
EPS  2.38  2.35 
Diluted EPS Formula = Net Income(Before Preferred Dividends)+After Tax Cost of Interest / (Common Shares Outstanding +Additional Shares Against Exercise of Convertible Securities)
 Diluted EPS = (20,00,000 + 0) / (8,00,000 + 50,000)
 Diluted EPS = 20,00,000 / 8,50,000
 Diluted EPS = 2.35
There would be additional common shares if conversion takes place for convertible debentures. At the same time, the company will not pay any interest on the convertible debt, meaning that net income will increase by the posttax amount of interest payment. Consider the above example of company ABC assuming only convertible debt is there and other convertibles are absent. The computation would be as follows:
Particulars  Basic EPS  Diluted EPS 
Net income  20,00,000  20,00,000 
Add: Aftertax cost of interest
(20,000*0.05*(10.25))*** 
–  750 
Numerator  20,00,000  20,00,750 
Weighted average number of common shares outstanding  8,00,000  8,00,000 
Additional shares are issued if debt is converted  –  5,000 
Denominator  8,00,000  8,05,000 
EPS  2.50  2.49 
*** Tax rate25%, interest rate5%, debt$20,000
Diluted EPS Formula = Net Income(Before Preferred Dividends)+After Tax Cost of Interest / (Common Shares Outstanding +Additional Shares Against Exercise of Convertible Securities)
 Diluted EPS = (20,00,000 + 750) / (8,00,000 + 5,000)
 Diluted EPS = 20,00,750 / 8,05,000
 Diluted EPS = 2.49
 Computation for stock options and warrants: Under IFRS, shares outstanding are calculated by an increase for an excess of many newly converted shares over and above the no of “inferred” shares that would have to be issued at the average market price of the period for receiving the conversion proceeds. Consider the above example of company ABC assuming only unexercised stock options exist and other convertibles are absent. The computation would be as follows:
Increase in shares outstanding  
Proceeds from option exercise (10,000*45)  $4,50,000 
New shares issued proceeds @$55 per share for receiving same proceeds (inferred shares) (450,000/55)  8,182 
Actual shares issued under options  10,000 
Dilutive shares from options  1,818 
Dilutive shares from options = Actual shares – New shares issued
 Dilutive shares from options = 10,000 – 8,182
 Dilutive shares from options = 1,818
Particulars  Basic EPS  Diluted EPS 
Net income  20,00,000  20,00,000 
Numerator  20,00,000  20,00,000 
Weighted average number of common shares outstanding  8,00,000  8,00,000 
Additional shares are issued If options are exercised  –  1,818 
Denominator  8,00,000  8,01,818 
EPS  2.50  2.49 
Diluted EPS Formula = Net Income(Before Preferred Dividends)+After Tax Cost of Interest / (Common Shares Outstanding +Additional Shares Against Exercise of Convertible Securities)
 Diluted EPS = (20,00,000 + 0) / (8,00,000 + 1,818)
 Diluted EPS = 20,00,000 / 8,01,818
 Diluted EPS = 2.49
Only inthemoney options may be considered for dilution since they will most likely be exercised. The options are considered in the money if the exercise price is lower than the average market price during the specified period used for computing EPS.
Significance and Use of Diluted EPS Formula
 Complex capital structure and conservatism: Most companies have a complex capital structure consisting of securities with conversion options for which the companies are committed to issuing additional shares in the future. A complex capital structure is specially maintained to lower the cost of capital. For example, financial institutions lending convertible debt would charge lower interest than equivalent nonconvertible debt. When assessing a company’s financial health, however, it is more appropriate to take the more conservative diluted EPS, assuming all conversions are exercised, although it is unlikely that all conversions will occur simultaneously.
 The difference in basic and diluted EPS: Most analysts and investors are critical of the big difference between basic and diluted EPS. This means the company has a very complex capital structure and significant commitments should the exercise materialize. Another point to note is the actual difference figure. A $0.1 difference between the two EPS may not be as significant in the case of $10 million outstanding shares as in the case of $10 billion outstanding shares. In the former case, $1 million is not available to exist, investors, while in the latter case, it is $1000 million.
 Diluted EPS vs Basic EPS for comparison: Diluted EPS and basic EPS are the same for a simple capital structure with no conversion options. When comparing with a complex capital structure, it is more appropriate to use Diluted EPS to facilitate an “apple to apple” comparison across time and peers.
 Impact on company’s P/E and other valuation measures: Diluted EPS adversely impacts the P/E ratio, so shareholders generally dislike companies issuing dilutive securities. Again, analysts find it is less difficult to calculate P/E using a total market cap in the numerator and total earnings in the denominator in case of a complex capital structure rather than checking for each conversion in the financial statements.
Diluted EPS Formula Calculator
You can use the following Diluted EPS Formula Calculator
Net Income  
After Tax Cost of Interest  
Common Shares Outstanding  
Additional shares issued if preferred shares converted  
Additional shares issued if debt converted  
Additional shares issued If options exercised (inthemoney)  
Diluted EPS Formula =  
Diluted EPS Formula = 
 

Diluted EPS Formula in Excel (With Excel Template)
Here, we will do the same example of the Diluted EPS formula in Excel. It is very easy and simple.
You can easily calculate the Diluted EPS using the Formula in the template provided.
Example #1
Example #2
Example #3
Example #4
Example #5.1
Example #5.2
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