Introduction to Python Language
Explanation of Python Language
The different kinds of features of Python are portable, extendable, GUI toolkit, scalable, interactive mode, etc., It has garbage collection features, high-level dynamic data types, and also can be easily integrated with different languages such as C++, C, CORBA, ActiveX, and Java. It supports different operating systems such as Windows, Linux, and Macintosh.
- Arithmetic Operators
- Assignment Operators
- Comparison (Relational) Operators
- Logical Operators
- Bitwise Operators
- Identity Operators
- Membership Operators
Python Conditional Operators
- If statement
- If…else statements
- Nested if statements
- While loop: – repeats until the given condition becomes true
- For loop: – executes a sequence of statements multiple lines
- Nested loops: – looping one or more in another loop
Python Loop Controls
- break: – terminates loop statements
- continue:- skips the execution of the loop in its remaining body
- pass:- to syntactically execute a code in python
The different numerical types are of signed integers such as int, long, float, complex. The complex number contains the real part and the imaginary part.
The different functions in mathematical functions API are abs (absolute value), ceil (ceiling value), exp (exponential), cmp (compare two values), floor (flooring values), log (natural logarithm), power (power of a number), sqrt (square root of a number).
A tuple is defined as a sequence of immutable objects. It is similar to lists. Tuples are immutable which means they can’t be modified.
A Dictionary is defined as it contains key and value pair of data which will be separated by a colon (:). A Dictionary can also be empty. Updating and deleting operations can also be done on Dictionaries based on the key-based indexes.
A Function in python can be defined as a block of code that can be reusable and produces a predefined functionality. This gives modularity and provides easier code maintenance.
Classes and Objects
A python language is object-oriented programming hence the classes can be created and objects can be instantiated. A class is a blueprint of the objects and the attributes will be declared inside the class. The instance of the class is the object and it contains the values of the attributes. It has the features of Inheritance, Function overloading, operator overloading, declaring data members, methods, objects, etc.
Class Inheritance is the process of extending the features of a superclass in its subclass to extend a few of its features by inheriting its superclass-type features.
Overriding methods is the process of overriding the same method by declaring it in the same way for the purpose of declaring different functionalities.
Overloading operators are the process of overloading the operators which will result in the same way for the purpose of declaring different functionalities.
The other different advanced features of the Python language are CGI programming, database access, networking, email processing, multithreading features, XML processing, GUI programming, and Regular Expressions.
The different Data Structures in the Python language are Lists, Sets, Dictionaries, Tuples and Sequences, Stacks, and Queues. Lists can be used as Stacks and also as Queues.
Errors and Exceptions in Python Language
The different types of errors in Python are Run-Time Errors, Type Errors, Name Errors, and Syntax Errors which are also called Parsing Errors. The errors can be detected at the time of compilation itself whereas Exception is defined as the errors that occurred during the time of execution where those cannot be reflected at the time of interpretation or compilation. Exceptions can also be like User-Defined Exceptions. The exceptions can be handled using an exception handling mechanism by using a try-except finally block where the code block prone to an exception is written inside a try block, the exception to be caught will be in else block and thee finally will be executed irrespective of the try and else blocks.
1. Numerical types of data in python
2. Backspace characters
|\a||Alert or Bell|
3. Tuples can be defined as below
tuple = ('maths, english', 1994, 2018)
4. Function syntax
def function_name( arguments ): "function_name1" function_name2 return [expression]
5. Declaring a class
class ClassName: 'Optional class doc string' class_content
6. Creating Instances (Objects) of class
dog1 = Dog("Puppy", 1)
7. Exception Handling
def divide(a, b): ... try: ... result = a / b ... except ZeroDivisionError: ... print("divide by zero.") ... else: ... print("Result :", result) ... finally: ... print("Executes finally clause")
Conclusion – Python Language
Python is a multi-paradigm programming language and it can be used for the development of web applications by using its relative web frameworks. Django is the familiar and the best framework for the Python programming language to develop web applications. Python can also be used in Mobile App Development, GUI based standalone apps or desktop applications, Games, business applications, software development, Image processing applications, computational applications, Scientific and Research Applications, and also including Operating Systems, prototyping. Python’s execution time is very less and hence it is better to be chosen for the requirement of fast executing applications. Python has powerful functional programming along with a blend of object-oriented programming features. Because of the faster execution features and predefined cleanup actions along with garbage collection mechanisms, python language is highly useful in the area of Data Science, Data operations, and handling data management operations in the field of Computer Science.
This has been a guide to Python Language. Here we have discussed some basic concepts of Python Language like Operators, different mathematical functions, features of python, examples, etc. You may also look at the following articles to learn more –