Differences Between Java vs C#
Java is an Object-Oriented, general-purpose programming language and class-based. Developers can use the principal – “write once, run anywhere” with Java. Java source program is converted to bytecode by the Java compiler, and then this compiled bytecode can be executed on any operating system having compatible JRE (Java Runtime Environment) C# is an Object-Oriented, functional, generic and component-oriented programming language. C# is used to build a variety of applications, it is specifically strong at building Windows desktop applications and games. Web development can also be done efficiently with C# and it has increasingly become popular for mobile developments.
- Java was originally developed by James Gosling at Sun Microsystem. Much of Java’s syntax is derived from C++, which is also class-based and Object-Oriented. Java is being shipped in the form of JDK (Java Development Kit), which includes various components that are required to run a java program, however, not all the components of JDK are mandatory to run Java. The latest version is Java 10, released in March 2018.
- The source code once written in Java can be run on any platform, which is one of the biggest benefits. It is just that appropriate JRE must be installed on a required operating system which can be downloaded from Java’s official website. Java is portable, means a program written for any platform must run similarly on a combination of hardware and operating system.
- A compiler would convert Java source code to bytecode, and JVM (Java Virtual Machine) which is created inside JRE (Java Runtime Environment) would convert bytecode to machine code. Java has extensive support for concurrency, networking, and GUI (Graphic User Interface).
- C# was developed by Microsoft with its .NET initiative, with a development team led by Anders Hejlsberg. The latest version of C# is 7.2, which was released in 2017 along with visual studio 2017 version 15.5. So, it makes an excellent choice for any programmer who wishes to do web and game development. There are various cross-platform tools available that allow applications written in C# which can be used over mobile and desktop.
- C# comes along with multiple features, thus it can be easily learned. Many complex tasks are abstracted away by the language, so one does not have to worry about issues like memory management and garbage collection while developing logic for application or game. It is a high-level language that is easier to read.
- C# is a statically-typed language, so written source code is thoroughly checked before it turns into an application. C# is a complex language to learn and mastering it can take more time than a language like Python. One wishes to build advanced programs with C#, need to learn a substantial amount of code. It has grown quickly since it was first created, with extensive support from Microsoft.
Head to Head Comparison Between Java and C# (Infographics)
Below are the top 8 comparisons between Java and C# performance:
Key Differences Between Java and C#
Below is the list of points that explain the key differences between Java and C# performance:
- Java is a great option for building complex web-based, highly concurrent application whereas C# is ideal for game development, mobile development.
- Java requires Java Development Kit which includes Java compiler and runs time environment to run Java on any machine whereas C# libraries are being shipped with a .NET framework with IDE like Visual Studio.
- Source code written in Java is compiled into bytecode and then bytecode is converted to machine code, ready to run on any platform whereas with C#, a code is interpreted into bytecode (MSIL) which is compiled by CLR and JIT compiler will convert MSIL into native machine code.
- Java is designed to execute on JRE (Java Runtime Environment), whereas C# is designed to execute on CLR (Common Language Runtime).
- Java is heavily used for building a complex application in an open source ecosystem whereas C# is mostly used to develop an application for Microsoft platforms.
- Java provides a clear difference between Checked and Unchecked exceptions whereas C# approach is minimalistic in nature by choosing only one type of exception.
- Java enables the polymorphism by default whereas with C#, one must invoke the “virtual” keyword in base-class and “override” keyword in a derived class.
- Java library ecosystem is vast and well documented which further assist in developing functionality at a decent pace whereas C# libraries work within the Microsoft ecosystem, which is limited as compared to Java.
- Java has traditionally a huge community providing open source libraries, so any need can be fulfilled with the libraries whereas free quality libraries support from Microsoft community is a downside for C#.
- Generic feature support in Java is compiler-assisted, implemented using erasures whereas C# takes generics further by integrating them into the CLI and allow type information to be available at runtime.
Comparison Table Java and C#
Following is the comparison table between Java and C# performance.
|Paradigm||Class-based, an Object-Oriented language derived from C++||Object-Oriented, component-oriented, functional, strong typing|
|Application||Complex web-based, highly concurrent application||Web and game development, popular for mobile development|
|Project||Suited for complex web-based concurrency project||Best suited for game development projects|
|Usage||Messaging, web application, highly concurrent application||Games, mobile development, virtual reality|
|Installation||Require JDK (Java Development Kit) to run Java||.NET framework provides a huge library of codes used by C#|
|Scope||Dominate server-side interaction||Server-side language with good programming foundation|
|Cross-platform||Java is highly efficient for cross-platform with its bytecode||Compare to Java, C# needs to improve on this feature|
|Tools||Eclipse, NetBeans, IntelliJ IDEA||Visual Studio, MonoDevelop, #develop|
Java has a large and better ecosystem, its community is constantly evolving, creating new libraries and framework and even tools. New languages based on JVM are also emerging like Scala, Groovy etc. It is also the main language used by Google to develop for Android, which is the largest mobile operating system. C#, on the other hand, is used primarily on the .NET framework, Mono, and other implementation of CLI. Applications built using C# would work efficiently on Microsoft-ecosystem, however, with the latest tools and libraries, this feature is being upgraded.
Java and C# have so many differences and similarities, the language that one chooses for development will depend largely upon the platform. One can compare a different aspect of Java and C#, and ask – what does Java do better than C# and vice versa? At the end of the day, it is the decision based on aspect like – application platform, developer ease of language usage, more suited libraries and requirement.
Both Java and C# is highly Object-Oriented languages providing various features. End of the day, Java vs C# are tools, a tool is best when it fits the task being done and excel when used by a good developer. It’s a decision based on ease of usage, application requirement and platform support and maintenance.
This has been a useful guide to Differences Between Java vs C# performance. Here we have discussed Java vs C# performance head to head comparison, key difference along with infographics and comparison table. You may also look at the following article to learn more –