Updated May 8, 2023
Introduction to Embedded System Interview Questions and Answers
An embedded system combines hardware and software, considering any computer system. It mainly helps to configure the system as programmable or fix some better features that improve its capability. It also assists in designing some of the specific function(s) considering any computer system larger than usual. Many electronics are popular due to identifying the proper location and helping people reach a destination with that location identifier. The embedded system especially helps identify a possible place in Industrial varieties of machines, automobiles, medical equipment, cameras, airplanes, toys, house equipment, etc.
If you are looking for a job related to Embedded Systems, you must prepare for the 2023 Embedded System Interview Questions. Every interview is indeed different as per the various job profiles. Here, we have prepared the crucial Embedded System Interview Questions and Answers to help you succeed in your interview.
This 2023 Embedded System Interview Questions article will present the ten most important and frequently asked Embedded System Interview questions. These questions are divided into two parts as follows:
Part 1 – Embedded System Interview Questions (Basic)
This first part covers basic Interview Questions and Answers.
Q1. Explain the pass-by-value and pass-by Reference in detail. How can we do this if we want to pass one structure as the argument?
Suppose a programmer needs to pass one value to one function to another. One common approach is passing this value through a parameter of that specific function. We can now pass one of the copies that require value as a variable, object reference, or memory reference where that variable value has been stored. The first is considered a pass-by-value, and 2nd one passes by Reference. In the case of pass-by-value, changes in passing the parameter within that function will not be reflected in the caller function. In contrast, in the case of pass-by-reference, any changes reflected the calling function.
Q2. Explain the difference between when to use the inline and macro functions.
Macro is just assuming one of the symbolic representations anytime for programming, but it never helps with data type differentiation which we usually did. In the case of inline functions, we can also easily define different data types.
Q3. When did the volatile keyword need to use? Give a detailed explanation.
Suppose any program is willing to use one specific parameter that belongs to other mapped devices; in such cases, a volatile keyword can be used, representing that specific variable with that conditional point of memory where that variable is mapped with another device. The main utility of the same is that the declared variable can be changed easily from outside of that specific program. Usually, when we compile any program, the compiler default performs additional optimization for that particular program. But the volatile parameters compiler could not perform any other optimization to that specific code.
Q4. Explain a soft and hard real-time system in detail.
This is the fundamental Embedded System Interview Question asked in an interview. In the case of the embedded system, hard real-time are always very strict in case of a timeline, never considering late delivery or response, not concentrating on the deliverable products, just thinking about late time and considering the same failure. But for the case of soft real-time, it is also rigorous on a timeline but still a little soft way. It mainly considers the product’s quality and the delivery’s performance. A slight delay in delivery or a deviation from the original timeline may occur if the product is of higher quality.
Q5. Explain semaphore in detail. There have varieties of types of semaphores available in the market. Please explain them in detail.
Semaphore maintains abstract data storage to control resource access across all active threads or multiple processes.
We usually find two kinds of semaphores:
- One is a binary semaphore, handling or accepting only the 0 and 1 values. It is mainly used when there is some possibility of contention in the case of a single resource entity.
- The second one is counting semaphores, which uses some incremental values but should have a specific limit.
Part 2 – Embedded System Interview Questions (Advanced)
Let us now have a look at the advanced Interview Questions.
Q6. Explain the characteristics of the recursive function. Is it possible to make them inline? If yes, please explain how it is possible.
The recursive function is one of the popular approaches for any programming methodology. It calls on its own or calls by itself. It refers to a specific function that calls to them at anytime before giving the final result.
Yes, defining the same as an inline function can be possible. During program execution, the compiler automatically allocates memory space when it first calls the inline function.
Q7. Explaining default size needs to be explained from the primitive types like Int, Char, and Float data types.
The char and int size are impossible to define, as it always depends on the specific operating system or specified firmware. It depends on the number of address lines in the address bar. But still, on average, int considers values between 2-4 bytes and char 1-2 bytes. The float typically took a little high value, 4 bytes.
Let us move to the following Embedded System Interview Questions.
Q8. Explain about detailed characteristics of Malloc. One of the trendy malloc statements is Malloc(sizeOf(0)); what will be the possible result after executing the same?
Malloc is a popular function that dynamically allocates memory to different variables. Malloc is mainly used for getting memory pointers. The mentioned statement always returns one valid integer value, pointing to a memory pointer of passing integer value 0.
Q9. Explain forwarding References available in C programming language.
These are the most asked Embedded System Interview Questions in an interview. Forward Reference in C indicates that when we plan to address or point to one smaller data type with a specific pointer of one more extensive data type in the C programming language.
Q10. If we create one possible object of an inherited class, what will be the exact order of calling that needs to be maintained for constructors and destructors?
Currently, object-oriented programming widely uses inherited classes. Here constructors and destructors both are calling on some specific timing. Here, the constructor mainly calls in the base class’s case first order, whereas the destructor typically calls the child class first order. This is why if we used two levels of inheritance like A (base class) >> B (child 1) >> C (Child 2), then the constructor of A will always be calling first, followed by B and C.
This has been a guide to the Embedded System Interview Questions and Answers so that the candidate can quickly crack down on these Questions. We have compiled a list of Embedded System Interview Questions employers frequently ask for your Reference. You may also look at the following articles to learn more –