Updated April 6, 2023
Cyber Security Interview Questions and Answers
Cyber Security interview questions can test the knowledge of an interviewee in terms of cybersecurity.
It’s well-established that cybersecurity is a highly lucrative field with high salaries. As such, a cybersecurity engineer in the USA earns a base salary of around $106,604 per year.
Cybersecurity protects information or data stored on computer systems from unauthorized access and other attacks. Cybersecurity mainly ensures the security of networks, programs, and computers from attack. Most importantly, cybersecurity is a vast field; hence preparing well for interviews is essential.
Table of Contents
- Cybersecurity Interview Questions (Basic)
- Cybersecurity Interview Questions (Advanced)
- Final Thoughts
- Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)
- Recommended Articles
- Cybersecurity interviews often include technical questions that test your knowledge of security concepts and technologies.
- The interviewer may ask questions specific to the company’s security needs.
- Before the interview, researching the company’s security policies, practices, and technologies is essential.
- Many cybersecurity roles require problem-solving skills.
- Candidate must have a good understanding of compliance regulations such as GDPR, HIPAA, and PCI DSS.
- Cybersecurity professionals must communicate effectively with technical and non-technical stakeholders.
Part 1 – Cyber Security Interview Questions (Basic)
Q1. Define Encryption and its use.
Encryption is a process of converting the data of a file into an unreadable format to protect the data from attack. It is widely used in an organization to secure its data.
Q2. What are the key terms for security?
The critical terms for security are Confidentiality, Integrity, and Availability. It is also known as the CIA.
- Confidentiality: Information should only be accessible to authorized individuals or systems.
- Integrity: Information should be accurate and unaltered by unauthorized individuals or systems.
- Availability: Information should be accessible to authorized individuals or systems when needed.
Q3. Differentiate between threat, vulnerability, and risk.
- A threat refers to anything that could potentially cause harm to an asset, system, or organization.
- Threats can come from both internal and external sources, such as malware, hackers, natural disasters, or employee errors.
- A vulnerability is a weakness in an asset, system, or organization that a threat could exploit.
- Vulnerabilities can exist in hardware, software, or human processes, resulting from design flaws, misconfigurations, or lack of security controls.
- Identifying and mitigating vulnerabilities is essential to reduce the risk of an attack.
- Risk is the potential for loss or harm from a threat exploiting a vulnerability.
- One can calculate the risk by assessing the likelihood of a threat exploiting a vulnerability and the impact of the resulting harm or loss.
- Risk management involves identifying, evaluating, and prioritizing risks and implementing controls to reduce or mitigate those risks.
Q4. Explain the firewall and its setup process.
A firewall is a type of network security system that keeps track of and manages incoming and outgoing network traffic by pre-established security rules.
Firewalls can be installed as hardware or software devices between the internet or another untrusted network and a private network.
A firewall can enforce security regulations, stop unwanted access, and defend against malware and other forms of cyberattack.
Firewall Setup Process
- Install a firewall solution on your network after selecting one that meets your needs.
- Set up the firewall’s network interfaces.
- Provide security guidelines and policies, such as which ports and protocols are permitted and which are not.
- To make sure the firewall is operating as intended, test it.
- To stay current with evolving security requirements, regularly monitor and change firewall rules.
Q5. Explain SSL and TLS.
SSL (Secure Sockets Layer)
- SSL is a protocol to establish secure and encrypted connections between web browsers and servers.
- Data in transit encrypts using a combination of public and private keys using SSL.
- SSL certificates help create a secure connection and verify the server’s identity.
- SSL certificates create a secure connection and verify the server’s identity.
TLS (Transport Layer Security)
- TLS is a successor to SSL and establishes secure and encrypted connections between web browsers and servers.
- To secure data in transit, TLS combines symmetric and asymmetric Encryption.
- TLS certificates authenticate the server’s identity and establish a secure connection.
- TLS is a commonly used protocol that is thought to be safer than SSL.
Part 2 – Cyber Security Interview Questions (Advanced)
Q6. How can identity theft be prevented?
- One can prevent identity theft by using a unique username and password.
- Do not share confidential information online.
- Use only trusted or secured websites for booking and shopping.
- Use the latest and most secure version of web browsers.
- Protect computers and devices with anti-virus tools
- Update system software periodically.
Q7. Explain CSRF and security misconfiguration.
CSRF (Cross-Site Request Forgery)
- A CSRF attack deceives a user into unintentionally doing an activity on a website without their knowledge or consent.
- Malicious code injects into a website to carry out the attack, which causes the website to submit unauthorized requests on behalf of the user.
- Data theft, website defacement, or unwanted actions like money transfers or password changes are all possible outcomes of CSRF attacks.
- When security protections implement incorrectly or partially in an application or system, it is called security misconfiguration.
- Weak passwords, unpatched vulnerabilities, default settings, or inadequate security setups can all lead to security misconfiguration.
- Unauthorized access, data breaches, and other security issues can result from security misconfigurations.
Q8. Explain DDoS attacks.
- DDoS attacks are a type of cyberattack in which multiple systems flood a target system or network with traffic, making it inaccessible to legitimate users.
- Botnets, which are networks of compromised computers that an attacker controls, may be used to launch DDoS assaults.
- DDoS attacks have many motivations, including financial gain, political motives, or just causing disruption.
- One can prevent these through DDoS mitigation solutions, such as firewalls, load balancers, and intrusion detection systems.
Q9. Explain the difference between processes, guidelines, and policies.
- Processes are a set of steps or actions that are taken to achieve a particular outcome or goal.
- It is possible to standardize and simplify workflows frequently using repetitive processes.
- A set of recommendations or best practices known as guidelines are meant to assist people or organizations in achieving a specific objective or result.
- Guidelines supplement policies or provide additional context for decision-making.
- A policy is a set of rules, principles, or guidelines that regulate organizational decision-making and behavior.
- Policies can manage risk, ensure compliance with laws and regulations, and maintain consistency in decision-making.
Q10. Explain the MITM attack and how to prevent it.
- MITM attack is a type of attack where an attacker intercepts communication between two parties to eavesdrop on or modify the traffic without their knowledge.
- MITM attacks occur through various methods, such as ARP spoofing, DNS spoofing, or using a rogue wireless access point.
- Sensitive data, including login passwords, financial information, and personal information, can be stolen via MITM attacks.
MITM attacks can be prevented by-
- Using two-factor authorization.
- Using secure protocols such as SSH or VPN for remote access to networks.
- Encrypting data and implementing SSL/TLS for web traffic to prevent attackers from intercepting and reading sensitive information.
- Monitoring networks for suspicious activity and unusual traffic patterns that may indicate a MITM attack.
Q11. Explain IPS and IDS.
- IPS stands for Intrusion Prevention System.
- It monitors network traffic for signs of malicious activity and takes action to prevent it.
- IPS analyzes network traffic, identifies known attack patterns or vulnerabilities, and takes automated actions to prevent or mitigate attacks.
- IDS stands for Intrusion Detection System.
- It is a type of security technology that monitors network traffic for signs of malicious activity and alerts administrators to potential threats.
- IDS analyzes network traffic, identifies patterns that match known attack signatures, and generates alerts for further investigation and response.
The primary difference between IPS and IDS is that IPS takes automated action to prevent or mitigate attacks, while IDS only alerts administrators to potential threats.
Preparing for a cyber security interview is crucial for anyone interested in pursuing a career in the field. While technical expertise is necessary, having a solid understanding of common security concepts and current cyber threats is equally essential. By reviewing key topics and practicing technical questions, candidates can increase their chances of success in an interview. Additionally, demonstrating strong communication and problem-solving skills can set candidates apart from other applicants. Ultimately, being well-prepared and knowledgeable can help candidates land a job in the dynamic and rewarding field of cyber security.
Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)
1. How do I prepare for a cybersecurity interview?
Answer: To prepare for a cyber security interview, review common security concepts, stay up-to-date with current cyber threats, practice answering technical questions, and be ready to discuss experience and skills.
2. What are the 5 C’s of cyber security?
Answer: The 5 C’s of cyber security are Confidentiality, Integrity, Availability, Authenticity, and Non-Repudiation.
- Confidentiality – Ensuring that sensitive information is only accessible to authorized individuals.
- Integrity – Maintaining the accuracy and completeness of data and systems.
- Availability – Ensuring that systems and information are accessible when needed.
- Authenticity – Verifying the identity of users and ensuring that data has not been tampered with.
- Non-Repudiation – Ensuring that the parties involved cannot deny actions or transactions.
3. What are the three importance of cyber security?
Answer: The three main importance of cyber security are protecting information, preventing cyber attacks, and maintaining business continuity.
- Protection of information – Safeguarding sensitive information from unauthorized access or disclosure.
- Prevention of cyber attacks – Implementing measures to prevent cyber-attacks and minimize their impact.
- Maintaining business continuity – Ensuring critical business operations can continue during a cyber-attack or other disruption.
4. What are the five best methods used for cyber security?
Answer: The five best methods used for cyber security are network security, endpoint security, application security, data security, and identity and access management.
- Network security – protecting networks and network-accessible resources from unauthorized access or attack.
- Endpoint security – Securing individual devices, such as computers or mobile devices, from cyber threats.
- Application security – Securing software applications from vulnerabilities and attacks.
- Data security – Protecting sensitive data from unauthorized access or disclosure.
- Identity and access management – Controlling user access to systems and data and ensuring that users are authenticated and authorized appropriately.
This is an EDUCBA guide to the top cybersecurity interview questions. You can view EDUCBA’s recommended articles for more information on this topic: