Introduction to Components of Computers
Components of Computers can be defined as the vital elements of the computer system that makes the device fully functional and run without procedural troubles. It is typically the basic hardware units that complete the structural architecture of the computer system. It is important to notice that the device does not work even if it is missed or not working. Every computer should have these essential components in order to qualify for the instrument to be called a computer system.
Components of computers
The main components of a Computer System’s Architecture and their functional flow are as below,
- Input unit
- Processing unit
- Output unit
Though these components can work independently, to make the computer system give accurate outcomes, it is important for these components to function in harmony with one another. Many devices are qualified as input and output units for computer systems.
1. Input Unit
The input unit begins the computation process where the user interaction is involved. This component is responsible for capturing the input from the user to command or instruct the other components of the computer. This process gives a lead to the computer and lets the next component decide how to brew up results for the input. There are multiple input devices available for this activity, depending on the type of input required for specific tasks.
The following are some of the commonly used input devices for carrying out the activities of the input unit are,
- Keyboard: Keyboard device, as the name says, comprises a bunch of keys that are used to type the instructions and input commands on the computer system. This device acts as an entity that lets the system to record the input provided by the user, and the typical format used to build this type of device is the QWERTY format, along with other functional keys like F1 to F12 ALT, CTRL, Shift, etc. keys.
- Mouse: The mouse is another commonly used input device for pointing and clicking, which comes with a scroll wheel for scrolling through the display and a couple of buttons for selection purposes.
- Joystick: Joystick is an input device used to send out commands for the gaming processes carried out in the computer system. It is made up of multiple control buttons and at least one lever control, hence, given the name ‘Joystick’.
- Touch Screen: Touch Screens are the latest advancement for sending input to computing devices, where the user just has to use sensible touch screens to instruct the computer. The touch-action can be performed by a dedicated pen-like device called ‘Stylus’ or even by using the user’s fingertips.
2. Central Processing Unit
The Central Processing Unit, commonly referred to as the CPU, is generally used for fetching input data or instructions from input units and converting the unprocessed input data into a machine-readable format, making it easy for the computer to carry out the processing activities. It is made of three different units: the Memory Unit, the Control Unit, and the Arithmetic & Logical Unit.
Memory Unit: This Unit is used for numerous purposes like storing the data received from diverse input devices, providing the necessary space for handling the computational activities, caching the previous calculations, reserving space for upcoming activities, buffering the temporary information, etc.
- Control Unit: This is the most intricate unit in the processing component of the computer system, which accepts the raw data from the input components, and carries out the activities in a controlled format, in accordance with the directions provided by the computer operators. This is another unit of hardware module located inside the central processing unit.
- Arithmetic & Logical Unit: The Arithmetic & Logical Unit plays a significant role in the workings of the computer device, where the relevant operations and logical functions are concluded. This unit works in collaboration with other units, like any other component in the computer system, by using the input information from the input unit and the memory/ control units to perform various jobs to achieve a flawless end result.
3. Output Unit
The Output Unit, similar to the input unit, is designed only for the sole purpose of interacting with the computer system user. It is usually used to give the processed results to the user based on the input provided. The devices that handle the output processing should be capable of delivering any type of data or a combination of data types on their display units, including text, numbers, images, audio, video, gifs, etc.
Here are the few commonly used output devices,
- Monitors: The computer monitors are responsible for displaying the results received after processing and completing all the operations in the central processing unit. The technology in designing the display devices has evolved from monochrome monitors to colored monitors to the latest LED/LCDs.
- Printers: Printers are another output device, similar to monitors, but the difference is that the output data received are produced into hard copies. The performance standards of the printer device are qualified based on the processing speed, the printing resolution, the processing memory capacity, printing color feature, etc.
- Speaker: Speakers are used for obtaining the audio formatted output data, which comes with various extensions like.MP3, MPEG, .WMA, etc. This device aids in sending out audible alerts to the user, accessing the data with music or audio, communication systems, etc.
Computer components are the crucial parts of the computer system, which serves their functions independently and by complementing other components inside the system. A computer system cannot perform to the fullest as a complete efficient & performing device unless all these components are working without any glitches.
This is a guide to Components of Computers. Here we have discussed an introduction to Components of Computers, architecture, and functional flow. You can also go through our other related articles to learn more –