Introduction to Types of Networking Protocols
A Network Protocol is a group of rules accompanied by the network. Network protocols will be formalized requirements and plans composed of rules, procedures, and types that describe communication among a couple of devices over the network. The protocol can be described as an approach to rules that enable a couple of entities of a communication program to transfer information through any type of variety of a physical medium. The protocol identifies the rules, syntax, semantics, and synchronization of communication and feasible error managing methods. In this article, we will discuss the different types of networking protocols.
Different Types of Networking Protocols
Below are the different types of Networking Protocols.
1. HTTP or HTTPs
- This stands for Hypertext Transfer Protocol or Hypertext Transfer Protocol (secure). The secure version is encrypted, meaning that we will encrypt all the data as we send it from the client to the server.
Application Layer (7) HTTP HTTPS
Transport Layer (4) 80 443
- Now client and server here become very important with application layer protocol. Nearly all application-layer protocols use this model, using one device on the client’s network, the other device on the network being the server.
- Now when we are using HTTP or HTTPS or a transfer a file. Transferring a file in the format of the hypertext. Hypertext is readable by a web browser. The client software you are likely very familiar with. This is either Google Chrome or Firefox, which may be Microsoft Edge or Apple’s Safari browser. These are all web clients that support the use of HTTP or HTTPS.
- The server side also running some software. It’s running server software. For the website, we usually use Apache, which is open-source software that is a web server, which can run on either Linux or Windows. We have nginx, which is used in very large website deployments and can be run on UNIX. We have Microsoft’s Internet Information Services or IIS, which can be run on Microsoft systems. There are several web server options out that a server administrator can install to host a website on the internet. So the whole purpose of the client-server here is to have client software like a web browser and the web server like Apache work in conjunction with each other and transfer these hypertext documents to get the website from the server to the client.
- The Port number uniquely identifies the layer-7 protocol being used at layer 4. We can use these port numbers to identify traffic at layer 4 easily, The HTTP by default, we have port 80, and for HTTPS by default, we have port 443 as the transport layer protocols.
2. FTP (File Transfer Protocol)
- The FTP allows us to transfer files from a client to a server or from a server to a client.
- We can do it in both directions here, and this protocol is either going to be FTP, sFTP, or TFTP.
- FTP is a File Transfer Protocol, SFTP is a Secure File Transfer Protocol, and TFTP is a Trivial File Transfer Protocol.
- FTP and SFTP are pretty similar to one another. These protocols will transfer files from one device to the other, and there is client and server software specifically designed to do this.
- TFTP works a little bit differently. It’s really meant for sending tiny files between two devices or having simple setups where you can transfer a file quickly without worrying about authentication or having any issues with firewalls causing your traffic to be knocked down.
- FTP and SFTP typically require both a username and a password in order to transfer these files. TFTP does not require this. SFTP specifically here is going to encrypt the traffic.
- FTP will use both ports 20 and 21; one is used for authentication; the other is used for transferring information. Port 22 is used for SFTP, and the reason for that is port 22 is actually the port number for another protocol we are going to look at called Secure Shell or SSH, and what happens here is we actually take the FTP protocol, and we put it inside of an SSH session, which allows us to encrypt traffic and is why the port numbers are the same for both SFTP and SSH. TFTP uses port number 69.
3. Email Protocols (POP3, IMAP, SMTP)
- Email is specifically designed for transferring files. We are transferring files that are actually in the format of these email documents. For email, we have three protocols we use. Two of them are used by a client to retrieve mail from a server. So POP and IMAP are explicitly used to take email messages that live currently on a server, maybe Gmail or maybe your company’s email server, and they use it to transfer those email messages over to your client, some type of mail client that resides on your workstation.
- SMTP, however, is a Simple Mail Transfer Protocol. This protocol takes a message that you create on a client email application, and it uses it then to send that email to an SMTP server. SMTP is used to forward the email to the server; the server then figures out how to get messages to the recipient that you intended.
- POP stands for Post Office Protocol; we are using version 3 there.
- IMAP is Internet Message Access Protocol, and then like SMTP is the Simple Mail Transfer Protocol. All these protocols work either in unencrypted or encrypted modes.
- So here with POP3, for unencrypted traffic, we will use port 110; for encrypted traffic, we will use port 995. IMAP, we will use port 143 for the unencrypted traffic, port 993 for encrypted traffic, and for SMTP, we will use port 25 for unencrypted and 465 for encrypted.
4. TCP(Transmission Control Protocol) and UDP(User Datagram Protocol)
There are two common network protocols used to send data packets over a network. Together, TCP and UDP are ahead of the data packets through your device, applying ports to different routers until they connect with the last destination. Also, they are utilized to send out the packets towards the IP address with the receiver. Equally, TCP as well as UDP focus on the top of IP, or Internet Protocol.
UDP/IP, which is used very often, but they are just referred to as TCP and UDP.
- TCP is among the most widely used protocol using the internet.
- TCP is a two-way conversation.
- TCP is focused on stability.
- Packets will be instructed and numbered.
- Packets will be error-checked.
UDP would not perform all of the error-checking made by TCP
- Error checking slower points down.
- Packets are simply delivered to the recipient.
Utilized once speed is desired as well as, error modification will be required
- Live broadcasts
Although the older idea of the network is usually foundational during almost all parts of culture, Computer Networks and Protocols possess permanently transformed the way human beings work, perform and connect. Forging strongly into parts of existence that nobody had predicted, digital networking is additional strengthening us in the future. New protocols and requirements will come out, new applications can be developed, and our lifetimes will probably be additionally transformed and improved.
This has been a guide to Types of Networking Protocols. Here we discuss the basic concept and different types of protocols with a detail explanation. You can also go through our other suggested articles to learn more –