Price Elasticity Of Demand Formula (Table of Contents)
 Price Elasticity Of Demand Formula
 Price Elasticity Of Demand Formula Calculator
 Price Elasticity Of Demand Formula in Excel(With Excel Template)
Price Elasticity Of Demand Formula
Price elasticity of demand is an economic measurement of how demand and supply change effect price of a product and vice versa. So, price elasticity is percentage change in quantity change to the percentage change in price.
The formula for calculating Price Elasticity Of Demand is as follows:
Where,
It means when demand or supply for any product change it will impact the price of a product in an economy. In the case of elastic goods with a change in price, demand and supply of product get impacted whereas if a product is inelastic with a change in price, demand and supply do not change.
Examples of Price Elasticity Of Demand Formula
Let’s see an example to understand price elasticity of demand formula.
Example #1
Suppose a fancy soap was in demand in a town percentage of change in quantity demanded is 20% and percentage change in price is 10%, the price elasticity of demand will be:
Hence,
 Price Elasticity of Demand = Percentage change in Quantity Demanded/Percentage change in Price
 Price Elasticity of Demand = 20%/10%
 Price Elasticity of Demand =2%
So, price elasticity demand is 2%.
Price elasticity of demand is a slope of a demand curve. This curve tells us the impact on the price of change in demand and supply. The value of Price elasticity of demand is negative as price and demand are inversely proportional to each other and in an opposite direction if price increases demand decreases and if price decreases, demand increases.
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Now, let us take another example to study the same.
Example #2
Plastic manufacturing companies which manufacture plastic box decide to decrease its price from $10 to $8 and predict an increase in monthly sales from 2,000 to 3,000 a month. To find price elasticity demand.
First,
We will calculate the percentage change in quantity demand.
 % change in quantity demanded = New quantity demanded – Old quantity demanded *100/Old quantity demanded
 % change in quantity demanded = 3000 – 2000 *100/2000
 % change in quantity demanded = 50%
Then we will find out the change in price by using the change in price formula
 % change in Price = New Price – Old Price *100/Old Price
 % change in Price = 810*100/10
 % change in Price = 20%
And now we will find out the Price Elasticity of Demand by using the below formula
 Price Elasticity of Demand = Percentage change in Quantity Demanded/Percentage change in Price
 Price Elasticity of Demand = 50%/20%
 Price Elasticity of Demand = 2.5%
So, the price elasticity of demand is 2.5.
This means that demand is elastic.
Now, let us see the demand curve.
Demand Curve is the curve form due to the change in price and its demand. Below is the sample of a demand curve.
Price elasticity of demand on demand curve
In the demand graph,
There is a different type of price elasticity of demand they are as follows:
 Perfect Inelastic Demand
In perfect inelastic demand, there is no change in demand with a change in price and value of price elasticity will be zero and the value of demand will be constant.
Here the demand curve is straight.
PED = 0
 Relatively Elastic Demand
If value of price elasticity demand is greater than one then a product is elastic. Here, the demand curve is gradually sloping.
1 < PED < ∞
 Relatively Inelastic Demand
If a value of price elasticity demand is less than one then a product is inelastic. Here, the demand curve is rapidly sloping.
0 < PED < 1
 Unit Elastic Demand
When the proportional change in demand produces the same change in the price then it is unit elastic demand.
PED = 0
 Perfectly Elastic Demand
It means if there is the slight increase in price will lead to the decrease in demand and even demand can decrease to zero and if there is a slight decrease in price will lead to increase in demand and even demand can increase to infinity. The demand curve for perfectly elastic demand is a horizontal straight line.
PED = ∞
Now, let’s see Law of Demand and Supply.
 Law of Demand
Under all condition be equal demand law state that with an increase in the price of product demand for product decreases and with the decrease in the price of product demand for product increases. Hence the law of demand tells that price and demand are inversely related.
 Law of Supply
Under all state be constant supply law state that with the increase in the price of product supply for product increases and with the decrease in the price of product supply for the product decreases. Hence the law of supply tells that price and demand are directly related.
Now, we will see factors that affect price elasticity.
Factors that Affect Price Elasticity
 Number of Alternatives
There is multiples brand available in the market if the cost of the price of one product increases consumer can shift to other alternative brand and product.
 Price of Product in Relation to Income
When the income of family increases or decreases with it their demand for good or service also changes. Here, demand and supply are elastic.
 Cost of Alternative
When one change goods or service from one brand to other there is a cost involved which could be in terms of fees or extra charges may be with it they are providing other benefits.. Hence the demand is inelastic.
 Brand Specific
Generally, people are brand specific and with increase or decrease of price, demand does not change that means demand is inelastic.
 Necessary for Goods
Some goods are there which consumer have to buy irrespective of price like medicines that means demand is inelastic.
Let us see one more example.
Example #3
Here, a twoyearold startup manufacturing company wants to study the market and fix the price of its good as per the demand of consumer in the current economic situation. Two years a back company has 3000 consumers with the price of goods $100 and now they predicted to increase sales by 5000 after a decrease in price to $85.
 % change in quantity demanded = New quantity demanded – Old quantity demanded *100/Old quantity demanded
 % change in quantity demanded = 5000 – 3000 *100/3000
 % change in quantity demanded = 200000/3000
 % change in quantity demanded = 66.66%
Then we will find out the change in price by using the change in price formula
 % change in Price = New Price – Old Price *100/Old Price
 % change in Price = 80 – 100*100/100
 % change in Price = 20%
And now we will find out the Price Elasticity of Demand by using the below formula
 Price Elasticity of Demand = Percentage change in Quantity Demanded/Percentage change in Price
 Price Elasticity of Demand = 66.66/20
 Price Elasticity of Demand = 3.33
So, the price elasticity of demand is 3.33 that means the product is elastic.
Now see a graph for same.
Graph for Price Elasticity of Demand
Significance and Use
There are many uses of price elasticity of demand they are as follow:
 It helps a company to analyze the impact of price change.
 It helps the government while making taxation policy.
 A company takes the various decision based on price elasticity of demand study like a tax to be paid by customer or self.
 Help to implement price discrimination concept where a product has a different price in the different market.
There is one disadvantage to the company in case of elastic demand when it does not know what price to be fixed for selling as if the price is high consumer will not buy and if the price is low company will face loss. The price elasticity of demand affects consumer as well as industries. Price elasticity of demand helps the company to fix their price, calculate and predict sales and revenue.
Price Elasticity Of Demand Formula Calculator
You can use the following Price Elasticity Of Demand Calculator
Percentage Change in Quantity Demanded  
Percentage Change in Price  
Price Elasticity of Demand =  
Price Elasticity of Demand = 


Price Elasticity Of Demand Formula in Excel (With excel template)
Here we will do the same example of the Price Elasticity Of Demand formula in Excel. It is very easy and simple. You need to provide the two inputs i.e % change in Quantity Demanded and % change in Price
You can easily calculate the Price Elasticity of Demand using Formula in the template provided.
In, this template we have to solve the Price Elasticity Of Demand Formula
Price Elasticity of Demand for fancy soap is calculated as:
Price Elasticity of Demand for plastic manufacturing companies is calculated as:
First, we will calculate the % change in quantity demanded
Now, we will Calculate the % change in price
At the Last, we are going to find the Price Elasticity of Demand Formula
Price Elasticity of Demand for manufacturing company is calculated as:
First, we will calculate the % change in quantity demanded
Now, we will Calculate the % change in price
At the Last, we are going to find the Price Elasticity of Demand
You can download this Price Elasticity Of Demand Formula Template here – Price Elasticity Of Demand Formula Excel Template
Conclusion – Price Elasticity Of Demand Formula
There is one disadvantage to a company in case of elastic demand when it does not know what price to be fixed for selling as if the price is high consumer will not buy and if the price is low company will face loss. The price elasticity of demand affects consumer as well as industries. Price elasticity of demand helps a company to fix their price, calculate and predict sales and revenue.
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This has been a guide to Price Elasticity Of Demand Formula, here we discuss its uses along with practical examples. We also provide you with Price Elasticity Of Demand calculator along with downloadable excel template.
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