Differences Between Functional Programming vs OOP
Functional programming is the programming technique that accentuates the functional factors required for creating and implementing the programs. OOP or the Object-Oriented Programs are the conceptual programming techniques that uses objects as the key. The programming model used in functional programming is a declarative programming model, while object-oriented programming uses the imperative programming model. In functional programs, variables and functions are the main elements of the code, while in object-oriented programs, objects and methods are the key elements.
- Functional programming also supports the programming languages like Lisp, Clojure, Wolfram, Erlang, Haskell, F#, R, and other prominent and domain-specific languages. Functional programming is a great fit for data science work and R is the popular language among the data scientists.
- FP languages can be translated well into an interactive environment, which makes the understanding of code easier.
- Functional programming provides advantages like efficiency, lazy evaluation, nested functions, bug-free code, parallel programming. In simple language, functional programming is to write the function having statements to execute a particular task for the application.
- The function can be easily invoked and reused at any point. It also helps the code to be managed and the same thing or statements does not need to write again and again.
- Functional Programming based on different concepts is 1. High Order Functions (HOF). 2. Pure functions. 3. Recursion. 4. Strict and Non-strict Evaluation. 5. Type systems. 6. Referential Transparency. In functional programming, functions are referred to as first-class citizens.
- Object-oriented programming based on the main features that are: 1. Abstraction: It helps in letting the useful information or relevant data to a user, which increases the efficiency of the program and make the things simple. 2. Inheritance: It helps in inheriting the methods, functions, properties, and fields of a base class in the derived class. 3. Polymorphism: It helps in doing one task in many ways with the help of overloading and overriding which is also known as compile-time and run-time polymorphism respectively. 4. Encapsulation: It helps in hiding the irrelevant data from a user and prevents the user from unauthorized access.
- Object-oriented programming languages are C++, C#, Java, Python, Ruby, PHP, Perl, Objective-C, Swift, Dart, Lisp, etc. In an object-oriented application, objects can be easily reused in another application. New objects can be easily created for the same class and code can be easily maintained and altered.
- It also has the feature of memory management. It provides a great benefit in designing large programs, which can be easily divided into smaller parts and helps in distinguishing the components or phases that need to be executed or planned in a certain way.
Head to Head Comparison Between Functional Programming and OOP
Below Is The Top 8 Comparison Between Functional Programming and OOP:
Key Difference Between Functional Programming and OOP
Below is the list of points that describes the difference between Functional Programming and OOP:
- Functional programming is used for performing many different operations for which the data is fixed. Object-oriented programming used for performing few operations which are having common behavior and different variants.
- Functional programming is having a stateless programming model. Object-oriented programming is having a stateful programming model.
- In functional programming, a state does not exist. In object-oriented programming, the state exists.
- In functional programming, a function is the primary manipulation unit. In object-oriented, an object is the primary manipulation unit.
- In functional programming, its functions have no side effects means does not make any impact on code that is running on multiple processors. In Object-oriented programming, its methods can have side effects and may put an impact on processors.
- In functional programming, the main focus of programming is what are we doing. In object-oriented programming, the main focus of programming is how are we doing.
- Functional programming mainly supports abstraction over data and abstraction over behavior. Object-oriented programming mainly supports abstraction over data only.
- Functional programming provides high performance in processing the large data for the applications. Object-oriented programming is not good for big data processing.
- Functional programming does not support conditional statements. In Object-oriented programming, conditional statements can be used like if-else statements and switch statement.
Functional Programming and OOP Comparison Table
Following is the Comparison Table Between Functional Programming and OOP
|BASIS FOR COMPARISON||Functional Programming||OOP|
|Definition||Functional programming emphasizes an evaluation of functions.||Object-oriented programming based on a concept of objects.|
|Data||Functional programming uses immutable data.||Object-oriented uses the mutable data.|
|Model||Functional programming does follow a declarative programming model.||Object-oriented programming does follow an imperative programming model.|
|Support||Parallel programming supported by Functional Programming.||Object-oriented programming does not support parallel programming.|
|Execution||In Functional programming, the statements can be executed in any order.||In OOPs, the statements should be executed in particular order.|
|Iteration||In Functional programming, recursion is used for iterative data.||In OOPs, loops are used for iterative data.|
|Element||The basic elements of functional programming are Variables and Functions.||The basic elements of object-oriented programming are objects and methods.|
|Use||The functional programming is used only when there are few things with more operations.||Object-oriented programming is used when there are many things with few operations.|
Functional Programming and Object-oriented programming both are different concepts of programming language. The aim of both Functional Programming vs OOP languages is to provide the bug-free code, which can be easily understandable, well-coded, managed and rapid development.
Functional programming and object-oriented programming uses a different method for storing and manipulating the data. In functional programming, data cannot be stored in objects and it can only be transformed by creating functions. In object-oriented programming, data is stored in objects. The object-oriented programming is widely used by the programmers and successful also.
In Object-oriented programming, it is really hard to maintain objects while increasing the levels of inheritance. It also breaks the principle of encapsulation and not fully modular even. In functional programming, it requires always a new object to execute functions and it takes a lot of memory for executing the applications.
Finally, to conclude, it is always up to the programmers or developers to choose the programming language concept that makes their development productive and easy.
This has been a useful guide to Difference Between Functional Programming vs OOP. Here we have discussed Functional Programming vs OOP head to head comparison, key difference along with infographics and comparison table. You may also look at the following article to learn more –