Full Form of LCD (Liquid Crystal Display), is a flat panel technology primarily used in televisions and computer displays but is now widely employed in mobile phones. These LCDs are different from old CRT displays which employ liquid crystals instead of cathode rays as their primary mode of operation.
It comprises millions of crystal pixels placed in a rectangular grid in an LCD panel. LCDs have backlights that brighten each pixel. In addition, each pixel consists of red, green, and blue (RGB) subpixel that can be activated or deactivated. When all sub-pixels are off, the image is black; when all sub-pixels are on 100%, the idea is white.
History of LCD
The LCD was invented in RCA Laboratories by George Heilmeier in 1964, an electrical engineer at the time.
Friedrich Reinitzer, an Austrian botanist, first developed liquid crystals in 1888 by extracting cholesterol from carrots. After that, research and experimentation ensued using liquid crystals. By 1936, the liquid crystal had been utilized in a practical application and was known as the LCL, or liquid crystal light valve, which is currently prevalent in wireless telecommunication. Then, in 1962, RCA researcher Richard Williams used voltage to create patterns in liquid crystal of thin layers known as electro-optical effects. All of this led to the invention of the LCD in 1964.
James Fergason, the International Liquid Crystal Company owner, created the first modern LCD in 1972. The LCD is with uses passive grid technology. Hitachi and NEC were the initial makers of active matrix LCDs in 1995. These LCDs utilize IPS (In-Plane Switching) technology. After all of this, by 1996, SAMSUNG and TOSHIBA had entered the market.
Types of Pixel Grids in LCD
LCD is a combination of two different states of matter: solid and liquid. The substantial component is crystal, and the liquid is twisted nematic liquid crystal; these two combine to form the visible image. An LCD consists of two layers: two polarised panels-filters and electrodes. The LCD screen operates by blocking light rather than emitting it.
In LCD, there are two types of pixel grids:
- Active Matrix Grid is a highly novel technology used in cell phones with LCDs.
- Passive Matrix Grid is found in old gadgets also have the same technique.
The main characteristics of LCD are:
- Voltage: 3V to 12V
- Operating Temperature: Ranges from 0°C to 60 °C, but it can vary from – 40 °C to +80 °C.
- Frequency: 30Hz to 60 Hz.
- Average Current Consumption:2 µA to 6µA
- Opening Time: 100 ms
Advantages of LCD
- The key benefit of LCD is that it is low in cost, energy efficient, and consumes very little power.
- LCD is smaller, lighter, and more flexible than ever before.
- LCD provides high contrast, brightness, and resolution, creating crystal-clear image clarity.
- LCD monitors emit far less radiation than CRT monitors.
- LCDs can be used with CMOS integrated circuits, making LCD production very simple.
- It produces superb sharpness at the original resolution.
- At the panel’s native resolution, there is no geometric distortion.
- Compared to earlier technology-based screens, it offers numerous advantages, such as portability.
Disadvantages of LCD
- LCD requires additional light sources to illuminate the pixels. The LCD will not display any image after removing the light sources.
- LCDs are less reliable.
- The visibility of the image is affected by the amount of light.
- LCD has a fixed ratio and resolution.
- LCD’s intensity scale is uneven, producing fewer than 256 discrete intensity levels.
- LCD color saturation is at low-intensity levels due to poor black levels.
- The limited viewing angle of LCD affects the brightness when we look at the screen from an angle, the color of the image changes in our eyes.
Different LCD use the different technology to produce images. By its definition, Full Form of LCD can display with the help of liquid pixels. However they are efficient, fast, and fit in the required standards.
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