**Table of Contents**

- Contribution Margin Formula
- Examples of Contribution Margin Formula (With Excel Template)
- Contribution Margin Formula Calculator

## Contribution Margin Formula

The contribution margin concept establishes a relationship between cost, sales, and profit. For the calculation of Contribution margin, the firm refers to its net sales and total variable expenses. It refers to the amount left over after deducting from the revenue or sales, the direct and indirect variable costs incurred in earning that revenue or sales. This left-over value then contributes to paying the periodic fixed costs of the business, with any remaining balance contributing profit to the firm.

Alternatively, contribution margins can be determined by calculating the contribution margin per unit formula and the contribution ratio.

Here’s the Contribution Margin Formula –

**Contribution Margin = Net Sales – Total Variable Expenses**

**Or,**

**Contribution Margin = Contribution Margin per Unit * No. of Unit Sold**

**Examples of Contribution Margin Formula (With Excel Template)**

Let’s take an example to understand the calculation of the Contribution Margin formula in a better manner.

#### Example #1

**Suppose we sell a pen for $10 in the market, and the variable cost is $6. Calculate the contribution margin of the pen**

We can calculate the contribution margin of the pen by using the formula given below.

**Contribution Margin = Net Sales – Total Variable Expenses**

- Contribution Margin= $10 – $6
- Contribution Margin =
**$4**

The contribution margins for the sale of the pen would be **$4,** and selling this pen would increase the profit of the firm by **$4.**

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#### Example #2

In this example, we will calculate the contribution margins of the firm through per unit. Let’s discuss:

**A Firm sells a single product known as product A. Sales and cost figures of the firm are given below:**

**Solution: **

By using the above information provided by the Firm, we can calculate per unit and a total contribution margin of the product A as below:

Contribution Margin per Unit is calculated using the formula given below

**Contribution Margin per Unit = Sales Price per Unit – Total Variable Cost per Unit**

- Contribution Margin per Unit = $100 – $65
- Contribution Margin per Unit =
**$35 per unit**

Total Contribution Margin is calculated using the formula given below

**Contribution Margin = Net Sales – Total Variable Expenses**

**Contribution Margin = (No. of Unit Sold * Sales Price per Unit) – (No. of Unit Sold * Variable Cost per Unit)**

- Total Contribution Margin = (10,000 units × $100) – (10,000 units * $65)
- Total Contribution Margin = $10,00,000 – $6,50,000
- Total Contribution Margin =
**$3,50,000**

**Or**

Total Contribution Margin is calculated using the formula given below

**Contribution Margin = Contribution Margin per Unit * No. of Unit Sold**

- Total Contribution Margin = $35 * 10,000 units
- Total Contribution Margin =
**$350,000**

#### Example #3

In this example, we will calculate the contribution margins alternatively with Net profit and fixed cost. Let’s discuss the financial data of the firm to calculate contribution margins.

**During the financial year 2018, Firm ABC has sold mobile phones of INR 2,00,000, and followings are the variable cost for the firm:**

**Solution:**

Total Variable Cost is calculated as

- Total Variable Cost = INR (50,000+20,000+40,000+30,000)
- Total Variable Cost =
**INR 1,40,000**

Contribution Margin is calculated using the formula given below

**Contribution Margin = Net Sales – Total Variable Expenses**

- Contribution Margin = INR 2,00,000 – INR 1,40,000
- Contribution Margin =
**INR 60,000**

We can say that ABC Firm has left over **INR 60,000** to meet its fixed expenses, and any remainder after meeting the fixed cost will be the profit for the firm. The fixed cost of the firm ABC includes the following:

Total Fixed Cost is calculated as:

- Total Fixed Cost = INR 10,000 + INR 15,000
- Total Fixed Cost =
**INR 25,000**

Net Profit is calculated using the formula given below

**Net Profit = Net Sales – (Total Variable Expenses + Fixed Expenses)**

- Net Profit = INR 2,00,000 – (1,40,000 + 25,000)
- Net Profit =
**INR 35,000**

Alternatively, we can calculate the contribution margins of the firm by using the formula given below.

**Contribution Margin = (Total Fixed Cost + Net Profits)**

- Contribution Margins = INR (25,000 + 35,000)
- Contribution Margins =
**INR 60,000**

### Explanation

Contribution margin is the amount left-over after deducting from the revenue, the direct and indirect variable costs incurred in earning that revenue. This left-over value then contributes to paying the periodic fixed costs of the business, with any remaining balance contributing profit to the owners. Hence, we can calculate contribution margins by deducting the total variable cost from the total sales.

To calculate the contribution margins, we need to consider three things:

**Fixed Expenses:**Fixed expenses are those expenses that do not change irrespective of sales volume, such as rent, salary, insurance, utilities, office, depreciation, fees, etc.**Variable Expenses:**Variable expenses are those expenses which tend to change with the volume of sales, such as the cost of goods sold.**Price:**The price of the product is the price set by the firm to sell at wholesale price or cost of manufacturing the product plus mark up.

Alternate Contribution Margin formula –

**Contribution Margin = Fixed Cost + Net Profit**

We can represent contribution margin in percentage as well. Alternatively, it is known as the ‘contribution to sales’ ratio or ‘Profit Volume’ ratio. This ratio represents the percentage of sales income available to cover its fixed cost expenses and to provide operating income to a firm.

Unit contribution margin per unit denotes the profit potential of a product or activity from the sale of each unit to cover per-unit fixed cost and generate profit for the firm. E.g., a firm sells a product at Rs 10 per piece and incurred variable costs per unit Rs 7, the unit contribution margin will be Rs 3 (10 – 7).

### Relevance and Uses of Contribution Margin Formula

Contribution margin is used by companies in their decisions regarding their operations. It is applied in various ways by the firm/individual for different levels of decision making.

- By using the contribution margin, the firm uses in break-even analysis. The breakeven point for a firm is when the revenue of the firm equals its expenses; also, we can that the point where the firm is having neither a net profit nor net loss.
- Contribution margin analysis is used to measure the operating leverage of the firm, as it measures how growth in sales translates to growth in profits.
- Contribution margin is also used to judge whether a firm has monopoly power in competition law, such as the use of the Lerner Index.
- A contribution margin is also used to compare individual product lines and also be estimated to set sales goals.

### Contribution Margin Formula Calculator

You can use the following Contribution Margin Calculator.

Net Sales | |

Total Variable Expenses | |

Contribution Margin Formula | |

Contribution Margin Formula = | Net Sales – Total Variable Expenses |

= | 0 – 0 |

= | 0 |

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