Introduction to Test Plan in Software Testing
The document that explains the scope and tasks in software testing is called Test Plan. Test Plan forms the basis for testing any software or product in the projector software environment. Test Plan has test plan identifier, introduction, test items, features to be tested and features to be excluded, approach, item pass/fail criteria, suspension criteria, test deliverables, testing tasks, and environment needs. We can call the Test plan the guidebook for the testing process. The test Plan should cover the entire testing process. IEEE829 standard has to be followed for the test plan.
What Is Test Plan in Software Testing?
This is all about the test plan in software testing, which is explained below in detail:
- The test plan details the objectives, resources, and processes of the test to be conducted.
- The workflow of software testing is explained well in the Test Plan.
- Test Plan describes the scope of testing, explains the testing techniques, details the resources required for testing, and schedules the intended test activities.
- The test plan helps identify the features and test items to be tested.
- Who will perform the task, the environment, the market and the techniques, and the risks in the test plan are to be considered.
- All phases of the Software Development Life Cycle are covered in the Test Plan.
- The design is verified with the test plan, and the compliance standards are checked.
- Test Plan is mostly prepared with the help of test engineers.
- A test plan is needed to check whether all the functions are covered and functioning properly.
- Test Plan also estimates the effort and cost of the testing process.
- The test Plan should have test coverage, responsibilities, and methods.
- The way of evaluating the test cases and deciding how to evaluate them is done with the help of the Test Plan.
Top 3 Types of Test plan in Software Testing
Here are the different types of Test plans which are explained below:
1. Master Test Plan
The high-level test plan in any project that combines all other test plans is called the Master Test Plan. There will be only one master test plan for the project. It describes the planned testing and how it is managed throughout different test levels. It clearly shows the decisions taken in the project, the efforts of the developers and testers, and plans to be carried out in the project. Master Test Plan should contain the following items.
- Test Strategy
- Test criteria
- Items to be tested
- Test schedule
- Test deliverables
- Risks involved
- Staffs and training
- Testing environment.
2. Level Specific Test Plans
The Test Plan created for each level of testing is called a level-specific test plan. The various levels are unit level, integration level, system level, and acceptance level. The unit level is the smallest unit in software testing, which has a single output. These units are combined to test as a group called integration testing. Here the bugs while interacting with different units are exposed. In system-level testing, complete and integrated software is tested to know the faults incurred. Finally, acceptance testing is done to test whether the contract’s requirements are met. A plan is prepared for all these levels, called level-specific test plans.
3. Type-Specific Test Plans
The Test plans written for the types of software testing are called type-specific Test Plans. The major testing is performance testing and security testing. The testing done to ensure the working of software under the expected workload is called performance testing. Stability and responsiveness are tested during this testing. Security mechanisms of software are tested using security testing. It checks whether the data is protected from intruders.
How to Write a Good Test Plan?
There is some software to write a test plan. But we should follow some steps for the same.
1. Analyze the Product
It is good to analyze the product and know its features and functions in any process. However, it is better to understand the product from a user’s point of view.
2. Develop Test Strategy
Several testing techniques must be considered to develop the test strategy for different levels. Considering the users as the first preference, the techniques have to be selected.
Scope and boundaries have to be well defined in the test plan. Client requirements document can refer to the features to be tested and not to be tested. The outputs can also be listed in the scope. Various testing techniques to be used must be specified in scope. Scope makes the test plan unique and useful for all who check the test plan.
Now we know the strategy and scope, it is easy to schedule the activities and timeline the efforts needed for testing. The schedule can also determine the number of resources needed for the work. The work can be divided into activities and assigned to resources to perform. The progress of the testing plan is easily identified using a schedule.
5. Roles and responsibilities
It is good to assign responsibilities to different resources and roles so that they take up the work without being asked to do it. Now all resources can understand what to do and when to do the tasks based on schedule and roles.
It is good to expect the risks so mitigation techniques can be developed, and the intensity of damage can be reduced. The users can track the risk responses. The risks include schedule, budget, expertise, and knowledge about the application. List down the major risks and use mitigation techniques to overcome risks easily.
Test Plan keeps the testing process on the right track. IEEE829 should be followed so that all will have the same opinion. The necessary elements for the test plan are well explained in the standard. Update the Test plan in between and review the same for quality. The plan should be specific and to the point.
This is a guide to Test Plan in Software Testing. Here we discuss the top 3 types and how to write a test plan in software testing in detail. You may also look at the following articles to learn more-