Updated September 12, 2023
What is System Analysis and Design?
System analysis is the process of verifying a system for development or improvement. In simple words, System analysis is a deep analysis of a part of the structure of a module designed before. System design defines data sources such as architecture, interfaces, and modules that meet specific requirements. System design is simply making any module or a part of the structure from scratch and building it ultimately without estimation.
System Analysis allows the developer to work directly on a project instead of thinking about it as a module. This ensures the perfect execution and estimation of the project. Once the project executes, the developer provides a trial to the client, and in case of any issues, it is necessary to clarify them.
The system design role starts when he gets into a particular project. The executive’s work is to collect all raw data, the need of the customer, the structure, and boundary conditions. The decision table in system analysis and design describes the basic steps and further works on the project as per the parameters.
- System development is a systematic process involving various phases like planning, analyzing, designing, deploying, and maintaining the system.
- System analysis is interpreting the data to identify the system’s objectives.
- System design helps to accomplish the identified objectives.
System Development Life Cycle (SDLC)
A structured approach, known as the System Development Life Cycle (SDLC), facilitates the development and implementation of information systems. The structured process includes multiple stages. Each one intends to ensure the successful development and delivery of the system. Here are the different phases of the SDLC:
#1 Feasibility: The feasibility study of system analysis and design is to check if the proposal given for the system matches user requirements. The feasibility check happens concerning operational, economic, technical, and schedule. The main aim of this phase is to achieve the scope of the system.
#2 System analysis: The process of collecting the data, understanding the process, identifying the errors, and providing recommendations for the betterment of the system. Here the subdividing of the complex process happens.
#3 System Design: The most important phase of developing a system involves designing the system either in a general or structured system design. After arriving at the logical design, it is put into action to obtain the physical design. It involves several tools and techniques to obtain the design: flowchart, Data flow diagram (DFD), Data dictionary, Decision table, and Decision tree.
#4 Coding: It is necessary to transform the defined procedures into control specifications. This demands the code that converts the specifications to instructions understandable by the computer.
#5 Testing: Now, checking the designed code happens to find the bugs. After writing the code for all the programs of a system, a test plan is a must. After running the test plan, the output obtained at the end of the test run should match the expected results.
#6 Implementation: This phase begins after getting approval from the user. At this stage, the theory turns into a live project. The hardware and the software must be operational. Where the installation of software and hardware, documentation process, and user training happen.
#7 Maintenance: To check for errors during the system’s work to provide the best possible results. A review of the system is necessary from time to time. Reviewing the system is essential to know its performance in case of additional requirements and the system’s capabilities.
Fact Finding Techniques in System Analysis and Design
Fact-finding techniques are essential in System Analysis and Design (SAD) as they collect information about the current system, user requirements, and business processes. Here are some commonly used fact-finding techniques in SAD:
#1 Interview: This method helps gather the necessary information from people as individuals or in groups. The analyst chooses the people, interviews them with the questions planned earlier, and records their responses. This clears the analyst’s doubts and bridges the gap in predicting future problems.
#2 Questionnaire: An analyst makes a series of logical questions in this method. Later the analyst emails them or sends them through the post to respective people. It is the cheapest way of finding the data. Only a skillful analyst adapts this method to extract information from numerous people.
#3 Sampling: The analyst collects all the documents people use during the interview or questionnaire to determine the data. It helps to understand the inputs and outputs of the existing system.
#4 Observation: The analyst personally visits the organization to verify the documents. This helps to find the key information or highlights the points that are must note. Analysts verify the documents, existing system working, user reviews, etc.
#5 Background reading and record view: If the analyst is a part of the organization of an existing system, then collecting information is a fact-gathering exercise. Else the information published in magazines, newspapers, journals, and documents is necessary to research for collecting the required data.
Types of System in System Analysis and Design
#1. Physical or Abstract System
Physical Systems: Physical systems are tangible and can be seen or touched. These systems comprise physical components such as hardware, software, and devices. Examples of physical systems include a computer system, a manufacturing assembly line, or a transportation system.
Abstract Systems: Abstract systems are intangible and cannot be seen or touched. These systems comprise non-physical components such as rules, regulations, procedures, and policies. Examples of abstract systems include a financial system, a voting system, or a legal system.
#2. Open or Closed System
Open Systems: Open systems interact with their environment and can exchange information, materials, and energy. These systems are dynamic and can adapt to changes in their environment. Examples of open systems include a business organization, an ecosystem, or the human body. Open systems require continuous environmental feedback to maintain their balance and functionality.
Closed Systems: Closed systems are self-contained and do not interact with their environment. These systems are static and do not adapt to changes in their environment. Examples of closed systems include a sealed container, a fixed-size database, or a computer program that does not interact with other programs. Closed systems follow pre-established rules and remain unaffected by external factors.
#3. Adaptive or Non-Adaptive System
Adaptive Systems: Adaptive systems can modify their behavior and structure in response to environmental or user requirements changes. Designers create these systems to be flexible and adaptable to changes over time. Examples of adaptive systems include artificial intelligence systems, recommendation engines, and autonomous vehicles. Adaptive systems use feedback mechanisms to learn from their environment and improve performance.
Non-Adaptive Systems: Non-adaptive systems do not modify their behavior or structure in response to changes in their environment or user requirements. These systems are designed to operate under a fixed set of rules and do not learn from their environment. Examples of non-adaptive systems include simple calculators, temperature control systems, and basic inventory management systems.
#4. Permanent or Temporary System
Permanent Systems: Designers develop permanent systems with a long-term focus and to exist for an extended period. These systems are usually expensive and require significant investment in time and resources. Examples of permanent systems include enterprise resource planning, customer relationship management, and core banking systems.
Temporary Systems: Temporary systems are systems that designers develop to exist briefly, with a short-term focus. These systems are usually less expensive and require less investment in time and resources. Examples of temporary systems include event management systems, promotional campaign management systems, and survey tools.
#5. Natural or Manufactured System
Natural Systems: Natural systems occur in nature and are not creations of humans. These systems are self-organizing and autonomous and have evolved through natural selection. Examples of natural systems include ecosystems, weather patterns, and the human body.
Manufactured Systems: Manufactured systems are those that humans have created to meet specific needs or objectives. Humans design and construct these systems using various materials, tools, and technologies. Examples of manufactured systems include buildings, transportation systems, and electronic devices.
#6. Deterministic or Probabilistic System
Deterministic Systems: Deterministic systems operate under a fixed set of rules or principles, and individuals can predict their behavior with certainty. A cause-and-effect relationship between inputs and outputs characterizes these systems. Examples of deterministic systems include mathematical models, traffic control, and inventory management systems.
Probabilistic Systems: Probabilistic systems operate under uncertain conditions, and researchers cannot predict their behavior with certainty. A statistical relationship between inputs and outputs characterizes these systems. Examples of probabilistic systems include weather forecasting systems, financial prediction models, and medical diagnosis systems.
#7. Social, Human-Machine, or Machine System
Social Systems: Social systems involve interactions between people, organizations, and society. Human behavior and social structures’ complexity characterize these systems, and they frequently include ethical and moral considerations. Examples of social systems include legal, political, and social media networks.
Human-Machine Systems: Human-machine systems involve interactions between people and machines. Balancing human and machine capabilities and limitations characterizes these systems, commonly involving usability and human factors issues. Examples of human-machine systems include aviation, healthcare, and industrial automation systems.
Machine Systems: Machine systems involve interactions between machines or automated processes. These systems characterize the need for efficient and reliable performance and often involve control and optimization issues. Examples of machine systems include manufacturing systems, transportation systems, and communication networks.
#8. Man–Made Information Systems
Man-made information systems are those humans create to collect, process, store, and communicate information to support business operations and decision-making. In System Analysis and Design, man-made information systems are often classified into four main categories:
Transaction Processing Systems (TPS): TPS are used to process and record routine transactions such as sales, inventory updates, and payroll. Designers make these systems fast, reliable, and precise and frequently employ databases to store transaction data.
Management Information Systems (MIS): MIS provides managers with information to support decision-making. These systems often use data from TPS and other sources to produce reports, graphs, and charts summarizing business performance.
Decision Support Systems (DSS): DSS support complex decision-making by providing interactive tools to analyze data and simulate scenarios. These systems often use advanced analytical techniques such as artificial intelligence, data mining, and machine learning.
Executive Information Systems (EIS): Top executives utilize EIS to obtain strategic information for long-term planning and decision-making. These systems often provide access to external sources of information such as news feeds, industry reports, and market data.
Elements of System in System Analysis and Design
Various elements or components are necessary to form a complete system.
#1 Input and Output: Researchers feed resources or data into the system for processing, known as inputs. These inputs can come from internal or external sources and can be in various forms, such as data, energy, or material. Outputs are the results or products produced by the system. Outputs can be in multiple forms, such as reports, messages, products, or services. Outputs can be fed back into the system as inputs for further processing.
#2 Processes: Processes are the activities or operations that transform inputs into outputs. Processes can be manual or automated, involving various functions such as calculation, sorting, storing, retrieving, and transmitting data.
#3 Control: Control is the mechanism or process that regulates the system’s performance to ensure it meets its objectives. Researchers can achieve control through different means, including automation, policies, rules, and procedures.
#4 Feedback: The feedback component in a system compares the obtained output with the measures.
#5 Environment: Environment refers to the external factors that affect the system’s performance, such as social, economic, political, and technological factors. The system must adapt to the environment to maintain its effectiveness and efficiency.
#6 Boundaries and Interfaces: The boundaries are the limits of an organization that determines the processes during the interface of the two systems.
Characteristics of System in System Analysis and Design
#1 Organization: Organizations determine how to arrange and coordinate the system components to accomplish the system’s objectives. The structure of a system within an organization can vary based on the system’s objectives and characteristics. For example, Organizations frequently use a hierarchical structure, characterized by a transparent chain of command with authority flowing from the top down. On the other hand, organizations with more decentralization use a flat structure where employees have more autonomy in decision-making.
#2 Interaction: Interaction refers to how the different components of a system or entity work together to achieve the entity’s objectives. In an interactive system, the components are interdependent, and their actions and behaviors affect one another. For example, in a traffic management system, the traffic lights, road sensors, and control centers are all interdependent components that must work together to manage traffic flow.
#3 Interdependence: Interdependence is a property of a system in System Analysis and Design, which refers to the degree to which system components rely on one another to achieve the system’s objectives. For example, in a manufacturing system, the performance of one machine can impact the performance of other machines in the production line, which can affect the overall production output.
#4 Integration: Integration refers to combining or merging a system’s different components or subsystems to create a unified whole that can perform the intended functions. For example, it can improve the efficiency and effectiveness of the system by reducing duplication of effort and eliminating inconsistencies. It can also enhance the system’s reliability, scalability, and maintainability.
#5 Central Objective: The central objective of a system is typically defined during the initial stages of the system analysis and design process and is based on the needs and requirements of the stakeholders involved. The objective must be specific, measurable, achievable, relevant, and time-bound (SMART) and aligned with the organization’s or project’s goals and objectives.
System Analysis And Design (Infographics)
Below is the top 11 difference between System Analysis and Design
Key differences between Analysis and Design
Below are the lists of points that describe the key differences between System Analysis and Design:
- System analysis deals with the client issues and modifications needed in the project, whereas system design deals with the client’s requirements and needs.
- In the case of IT industry system analysis, then a team like IQMS deals with fixing bugs. In designing, then people like web developers and Android developers are necessary.
- System design incorporates collecting and reviewing problems and further solving them with the help of a team or tool. System design plans a new module by defining its components and satisfying its key requirements.
- System analysis makes the module ready for proper execution without any errors. System designing is just a part of proper designing with the optimum code required and prepared to submit.
- The key difference between system analysis and design is the tool and its features. Unfortunately, the most common thing about them is that both tools don’t have similar features, so a single person or candidate can’t operate simultaneously.
- Work framing and categorizing usually don’t come under the system analysis part, but it falls under the system designer.
- The system designer must work until the project’s existing modules or structures are edited. But the system analyst must stay until the end of the live-running project.
- During system analysis and design testing, the analyst has to deal with the end client satisfaction and work on repetition until acceptance. The designer’s role is to execute and fix errors due to structure or dimensional properties.
Below is the topmost comparison between System Analysis and Design
|Particulars||System Analysis||System design|
|Role in SDLC||This post-process starts when the design is complete and ready for analysis.||This process starts from scratch and utilizes all your new ideas.|
|Process||The analysis includes processing, execution, bug fixing, and making reports.||The design includes collecting raw data, requirements, needs, and planning.|
|Error||It resembles removing the error from the existing model.||Errors may come while creating but couldn’t fix at the start.|
|Time consumption||The time consumed in analyzing is less than the time consumed by design.||In design, the maximum time goes before the initiation of work.|
|Configuration||The system required for analysis should have a higher configuration.||Design PC is even good enough, but the less configuration would sustain smaller projects and even do for big if done in parts.|
|Screens||Multiple screens are required for analysis to check and fix the bug.||The single but large screen is more than enough, as just detailing is the main job.|
|Pre-Planning||Pre-planning is not a compulsion, but yes, discussion on results does matter.||Pre-planning is the most important task, and discussion about pre-planning is done.|
|Career||To become a system analyzer, you need to have post-graduation in your studies; then, you can make growth in your career.||Design members must have a diploma or graduation degree to ensure growth in the design field.|
|Depth of Knowledge||The analysis shows the depth of study you have in a particular field.||In design, your overall knowledge of concepts is required with your existing education.|
|Outcome||The analysis makes you answerable for that project as you have a habit of clearing errors from it.||Design that can make you answerable only in part of the structure and dimensional parameters.|
|Testing||There is no testing process for the system analysis; the system analyzer is the person who finalizes the report.||The quality assurance team analyzes the interaction of the component in the system.|
System Analysis And Design Tools and Techniques
The scheduled logical entry of the conditions in the table is the decision table. Here the representation of the conditions is in a row, and the representation of column headings and actions are in intersectional points of conditional cases. Adding conditional cases to the table is easy just by adding an extra row.
Data collection has a definition, use, or structure of every element used in the project. Several attributes will be stored in the data dictionary, like labels, data type, structure, programs, values, physical location, etc. It applies only to developing databases but is not valuable for documentation purposes. The Data Dictionary (DD) package is available commercially as a CASE package or DBMS. This DD package helps to generate the code and check for consistency.
Data Flow Diagram:
DFD, or Data Flow Diagram, represents the process of how data flows in a system. It doesn’t have decision rules or loops or control flow. DFD is beneficial for communicating with users and managers about the data flow. The representation of DFD happens in several ways. They are so popular as they can visualize the data and steps of a software system.
There are four components in the DFD:
Process: This component involves the transformation of input data into output. The symbols used in the process are rectangular with rounded corners.
Data Flow: It describes the information transferring in different system parts. The arrow symbol represents the data flow.
Warehouse: The warehouse helps in the storage of data for further use. A symbol that represents the data storage is two horizontal lines.
Terminator: The terminators are the external entity that communicates with the system.
Importance & Benefits of System Analysis And Design
System analysis and design put organizations to be on the edge of competitors. It plans and implements large-scale operations efficiently. It objects to improving the authoritative systems as the organizations aim at providing products and services to drive customer satisfaction. There are many benefits of having these methods in an organization.
Benefits of System Analysis and Design
- It enables the comprehension of complicated structures.
- It helps to align any organization with its environment and strategies.
- Reduces the IT issues, thereby reducing the burden on the employees.
- Allows better changes to happen for the business.
- Identifies the threats and risks to improvise the quality of the overall system.
- Improves the usability of customers by providing productivity and customer satisfaction.
System analysis and design is a complete process of collecting data to define and develop the system to meet user requirements. System analysis and design are essential to achieve the required results and help resolve the issues at the developing stage. System analysis vs design is a different field with similar knowledge, but working is different. Also, they have their different tasks assigned with different tools and techniques adhered to them.
Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)
Q1 What is SDLC in system analysis and design?
Ans: SDLC, or System Development Life Cycle, is a methodology or model that describes the various phases involved in the development of a system. It refers to multiple phases: feasibility, system analysis, design, implementation, testing, and maintenance.
Q2 What is power system design and analysis?
Ans: The power system design is the method of designing the electrical system. And power system analysis is the process of analyzing the developed power system.
Q3 Write about prototyping in system design and analysis.
Ans: Prototyping is an approach to building a model, testing it, and reworking it in case of any errors. These are basically to help the system designers to achieve precise results. It is usually a quick design or prototype for user acceptance; the initial implementation starts once the quick design gets approval.
Q4 How CASE tools in system analysis and design are essential?
Ans: CASE tool or Computer Aided Software Engineering Tool to automate software development activities. It includes different components according to the need in phases of software development like a central repository, upper, lower, and integrated. There are plenty of tools for change control, project management, diagram tool, document tool, etc.
Q5 What do information system analysis and design mean?
Ans: The information system analysis and design is a process that companies use to evaluate business situations to develop ways to improve the business process. These processes aim to meet the business objectives for the organization’s growth.
Q6 What is Structured System Analysis and Design?
Ans: Structured System Analysis and Design is a method of approach of the systems to the analysis and design of information systems. It is the most widely used system development method in the United Kingdom, especially for government computing projects.
Q7 Name some best system analysis and design books.
Ans: Here is a list of the best system analysis and design books,
- “Modern Systems Analysis and Design” by Jeffrey A. Hoffer.
- “Systems Analysis and Design” by Alan Dennis.
- “System Analysis, Design, and Development: Concepts, Principles, and Practices” by Charles S. Wasson.
- “Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World” by John W. Satzinger.
- “How to Do Systems Analysis: Primer and Casebook” by William Gibson.
This EDUCBA guide to the top difference between System Analysis And Design discusses the System Analysis And Design key differences with infographics, comparison tables, and the importance of system analysis and design. EDUCBA also suggests the following articles to learn more –