Updated May 2, 2023
Introduction to MapReduce Interview Questions and Answers
MapReduce is a simple parallel data programming model for scalability and fault tolerance. We can say that MapReduce is a framework that uses the concept of nodes to parallelize the problems that occur in large data sets; if they are local networks, it uses the same hardware, and if MapReduce is geographically distributed, it uses different hardware, respectively. The MapReduce programming model consists of two main functions, Map() and Reduce(), and gained popularity through its use in the open-source Hadoop project.
If you are looking for a job related to MapReduce, you must prepare for the 2023 MapReduce Interview Questions. Though every MapReduce interview is different and the job scope is also different, we can help you with the top MapReduce Interview Questions with answers, which will help you take the leap and succeed in your interview.
Below are the 9 important 2023 MapReduce Interview Questions and Answers. These questions are divided into two parts as follows:
Part 1 – MapReduce Interview Questions (Basic)
This first part covers basic Interview Questions and Answers:
Q1. What is MapReduce?
MapReduce is a parallel data programming model designed for scalability and fault tolerance. In other words, it is a framework that processes parallelizable problems in large data sets using the concept of nodes (the number of computers), which are in turn classified as clusters if it is a local network and uses the same hardware or grids if they are geographically distributed and use different hardware. The MapReduce comprises a Map () function and a Reduce () function. Google pioneered MapReduce and uses it to process many petabytes of data daily. Companies like Yahoo, Facebook, and Amazon use it now, but the open-source Hadoop project popularized it.
Q2. What is MapReduce used for-By the Company?
- Construction of Index for Google Search: Constructing a positional or nonpositional index is called index construction or indexing. MapReduce is designed for index construction in large computer clusters. The cluster aims to solve computational problems for nodes or computers built with standard parts rather than a supercomputer.
- Article Clustering for Google News: To cluster articles, they first classify the pages according to their relevance for clustering, as pages often contain extraneous information that is not needed. They convert the article into its vector form based on keywords and their weightage and then cluster it using algorithms.
- Statistical Machine Translation: By analyzing bilingual text corpora, we can generate statistical models that translate one language to another using weights and select the most likely translation.
- “Web map” powering Yahoo! Search.
Like the article clustering for Google News, MapReduce is used for clustering search outputs on the Yahoo! Platform.
- Spam Detection for Yahoo! Mail
- Data Mining
The recent data explosion trend has resulted in the need for sophisticated methods to divide the data into chunks that can be used easily for the next analysis step.
- Spam Detection
Q3. What are the MapReduce Design Goals?
- Scalability to large data Volumes: The MapReduce framework, designed to handle parallelizable data using a node-based system, can be deployed on clusters or grids of computers, making it scalable. So one prominent design goal of MapReduce is that it is scalable to 1000’s of machines and so 10,000’s of disks.
- Cost-Efficiency: As MapReduce works with parallelizing data at the nodes or several computers, the following are the reasons which make it cost-efficient:
- Cheap commodity machines instead of a supercomputer. Though cheap, they are unreliable.
- Commodity Network.
- Automatic fault tolerance reduces the number of required administrators
- It is easy to use, i.e., it requires fewer programmers.
Q4. What are the challenges of MapReduce?
These are the common MapReduce Interview questions asked in an interview. The main challenges of MapReduce are as follows:
- Cheap Nodes fail, especially if you have many: The mean time between failures for 1 node equals 3 years. The mean time between failures for 1000 nodes is equal to 1 day. The solution is to build fault tolerance into the system itself.
- A commodity network equals or implies low bandwidth: The solution for a low bandwidth is to push computation to the data.
- Programming distributed systems are hard: According to the data-parallel programming model, users write ‘map’ and ‘reduce’ functions to solve this problem. The system distributes the work and handles the faults.
Q5. What is the MapReduce programming model?
The MapReduce programming model is based on a concept called key-value records. It also provides paradigms for parallel data processing. For processing the data in MapReduce, both the Input data and Output needs to be mapped into the format of multiple key-value pairs. A record in MapReduce refers to a single key-value pair. The MapReduce programming model consists of a Map () function and a Reduce function.
The model for these is as follows:
- Map () function: (K in, V in) list (K inter, V inter)
- Reduce () function: (K inter, list (V inter)) list (K out, V out)
Part 2 – MapReduce Interview Questions (Advanced)
Let us now have a look at the advanced Interview Questions.
Q6. What are the MapReduce Execution Details?
In the case of MapReduce execution, a single master controls job execution on multiple slaves. MapReduce typically places mappers on the same node or rack as their input block to reduce network usage. Also, mappers save outputs to the local disk before serving them to reducers. This allows recovery if a reducer crash and allows more reducers than nodes.
Q7. What is a combiner?
The semi-reducer combiner receives inputs from the Map class and sends the resulting key-value pairs to the Reducer class. The main function of a combiner is to summarize map output records with the same key. A combiner is a function that performs local aggregation on repeated keys generated by a single map. It works for associative functions like SUM, COUNT, and MAX. It decreases the intermediate data size by summarizing the aggregation of values for all the repetitive keys.
Q8. Why Pig? Why not MapReduce?
- MapReduce allows the programmer to carry out a map function followed by a reduced function. However, working on how to fit your data processing into this pattern, which often requires multiple MapReduce stages, can be a challenge.
- Pig offers richer data structures that are multivalued and nested and a more powerful set of data transformations. For example, they include joins that are not possible in MapReduce.
- Also, Pig is one program that turns the transformation into a series of MapReduce Jobs.
Q9. MapReduce Criticism
One prominent criticism of MapReduce is that the development cycle is very long. Writing the mappers and reducers, compiling and packaging the code, submitting the job, and retrieving the results are time-consuming. Even with streaming, which removes the compile and package steps, the experience still takes a long time.
This has been a guide to the List of MapReduce Interview Questions and Answers so that the candidate can easily crack down on these questions. You may also look at the following articles to learn more –