Updated May 9, 2023
Differences Between Java vs C#
Java is an Object-Oriented, general-purpose programming language and class-based. Developers can use the principle – “write once, run anywhere” with Java. Java source program is converted to bytecode by the Java compiler, and then this compiled bytecode can be executed on any operating system having compatible JRE (Java Runtime Environment). C# is an Object-Oriented, functional, generic, and component-oriented programming language. C# is used to build various applications; it is specifically strong at building Windows desktop applications and games. Web development can also be done efficiently with C#, which has increasingly become popular for mobile development.
- James Gosling originally developed Java at Sun Microsystem.C++, another class-based and object-oriented programming language, largely influences Java’s syntax. The JDK (Java Development Kit) contains several components required to run a Java program, although not all components of JDK are necessary to run Java. The most recent version of Java is Java 17, released in September 2021.
- Once written in Java, the source code can be run on any platform, which is one of the most significant benefits. Java programs can run on any hardware and operating system combination because Java is a portable language.
- To run a Java program, one must install an appropriate JRE (Java Runtime Environment) on the required operating system, which is available for download on Java’s official website.
- A compiler would convert Java source code to bytecode, and JVM (Java Virtual Machine), created inside JRE (Java Runtime Environment), would convert bytecode to machine code. Java has extensive support for concurrency, networking, and GUI (Graphic User Interface).
- C# was developed by Microsoft with its .NET initiative, with a development team led by Anders Hejlsberg. The latest version of C# is 7.2, released in 2017, along with visual studio 2017 version 15.5. So, it is an excellent choice for any programmer who wishes to develop web and games.
- The language abstracts away many complex tasks, so developers do not have to worry about issues like memory management and garbage collection while developing logic for an application or game. Additionally, C# is a high-level language that is easier to read than other programming languages.
- C# checks the written source code before it becomes an application, as it is a statically-typed language. C# is a complex language to learn, and mastering it can take more time than a language like Python. One who wishes to build advanced programs with C# must know a substantial amount of code. It has proliferated since it was first created, with extensive support from Microsoft.
Head to Head Comparison Between Java vs C# (Infographics)
Below are the top 8 comparisons between Java vs C# performance:
Key Differences Between Java and C#
Below is the list of points that explain the key differences between Java and C# performance:
- Java is a great option for building complex web-based, highly concurrent applications, whereas C# is ideal for game development and mobile development.
- To run Java on any machine, you need the Java Development Kit, which includes a Java compiler and runtime environment. In contrast, the .NET framework with an IDE like Visual Studio is shipped with C# libraries.
- The Java compiler compiles code into bytecode, which is then converted into machine code, allowing it to run on any platform. In contrast, the Common Language Runtime (CLR) interprets C# code into MSIL bytecode, which is then compiled and converted into native machine code by the JIT compiler.
- The Java programming language is designed to operate on the Java Runtime Environment (JRE), while the C# language is intended to run on the Common Language Runtime (CLR).
- Additionally, Java differentiates between Checked and Unchecked exceptions, while C# follows a more minimalistic approach and uses only one exception type.
- Java enables polymorphism by default,
- Whereas with C#, one must invoke the “virtual” keyword in the base class and the “override” keyword in a derived class.
- In contrast, C # takes generics further by integrating them into the CLI and allows type information to be available at runtime.
Comparison Table Java and C#
Following is the comparison table between Java and C# performance.
|Paradigm||Class-based, an Object-Oriented language derived from C++||Object-Oriented, component-oriented, functional, strong typing|
|Application||Complex web-based, highly concurrent application||Web and game development, popular for mobile development|
|Project||Suited for complex web-based concurrency project||Best suited for game development projects|
|Usage||Messaging, web application, highly concurrent application||Games, mobile development, virtual reality|
|Installation||Require JDK (Java Development Kit) to run Java||.NET framework provides a huge library of codes used by C#|
|Scope||Dominate server-side interaction||Server-side language with a good programming foundation|
|Cross-platform||Java is highly efficient for cross-platform with its bytecode||Compared to Java, C# needs to improve on this feature|
|Tools||Eclipse, NetBeans, IntelliJ IDEA||Visual Studio, MonoDevelop, #develop|
Java has a large and better ecosystem; its community is constantly evolving, creating new libraries, frameworks, and even tools. New languages based on JVM are also emerging, like Scala, Groovy, etc. C#, on the other hand, is used primarily on the .NET framework, Mono, and other implementations of CLI. Applications built using C# would work efficiently on Microsoft-ecosystem. It’s a decision based on ease of usage, application requirement, and platform support and maintenance.
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