**Efficiency Formula (Table of Contents)**

## What is the Efficiency Formula?

The term “Efficiency Formula” refers to the set of ratios that measures how well a company is able to utilize its assets and capital to generate revenue. In this article, we will discuss the following efficiency ratios:

- Fixed Asset Turnover Ratio
- Accounts Receivable Turnover Ratio
- Inventory Turnover Ratio
- Accounts Payable Turnover Ratio

The formula for the fixed asset turnover ratio can be expressed by dividing the net sales of the company by the average net fixed assets. Mathematically, it is represented as,

**Fixed Asset Turnover = Net Sales / Average Net Fixed Assets**

The formula for the accounts receivable turnover ratio can be expressed by dividing the net sales by the average accounts receivable. Mathematically, it is represented as,

**Accounts Receivable Turnover = Net Sales / Average Accounts Receivable**

The formula for inventory turnover ratio can be expressed by dividing the cost of goods sold by the average inventory. Mathematically, it is represented as,

**Inventory Turnover = Cost of Goods Sold / Average Inventory**

The formula for the accounts payable turnover ratio can be expressed by dividing the cost of goods sold by the average accounts payable. Mathematically, it is represented as,

**Accounts Payable Turnover =**

**Cost of Goods Sold / Average Accounts Payable**

**Example of Efficiency Formula (With Excel Template)**

Let’s take an example to understand the calculation of Efficiency Formula in a better manner.

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#### Efficiency Formula – Example #1

**Let us take the example of Apple Inc.’s annual report for the year 2018 to illustrate the concept of efficiency formula. Calculate the efficiency ratios for the year 2018 based on the below-given information.**

**Solution:**

Average Net Fixed Assets is calculated using the formula given below

**Average Net Fixed Assets = (Opening Net Fixed Asset + Closing Net Fixed Asset) / 2**

- Average Net Fixed Assets = ($33,783 million + $41,304 million) / 2
- Average Net Fixed Assets =
**$37,543.5 million**

Average Accounts Receivable is calculated using the formula given below

**Average Accounts Receivable = (Opening Accounts Receivable + Closing Accounts Receivable) / 2**

- Average Accounts Receivable = ($17,874 million + $23,186 million) / 2
- Average Accounts Receivable =
**$20,530 million**

Average Inventory is calculated using the formula given below

**Average Inventory = (Opening Inventory + Closing Inventory) / 2**

- Average Inventory = ($4,855 million + $3,956 million) / 2
- Average Inventory =
**$4,405.5 million**

Average Accounts Payable is calculated using the formula given below

**Average Accounts Payable = (Opening Accounts Payable + Closing Accounts Payable) / 2**

- Average Accounts Payable = ($44,242 million + $55,888 million) / 2
- Average Accounts Payable =
**$50,065 million**

Fixed Asset Turnover is calculated using the formula given below

**Fixed Asset Turnover = Net Sales / Average Net Fixed Assets**

- Fixed Asset Turnover = $265,595 million / $37,543.5 million
- Fixed Asset Turnover =
**7.07**

Accounts Receivable Turnover is calculated using the formula given below

**Accounts Receivable Turnover = Net Sales / Average Accounts Receivable**

- Accounts Receivable Turnover = $265,595 million / $20,530 million
- Accounts Receivable Turnover =
**12.94**

Inventory Turnover Ratio is calculated using the formula given below

**Inventory Turnover Ratio = Cost of Goods Sold / Average Inventory**

- Inventory Turnover Ratio = $163,756 million / $4,405.5 million
- Inventory Turnover Ratio =
**37.17**

Accounts Payable Turnover is calculated using the formula given below

**Accounts Payable Turnover = Cost of Goods Sold / Average Accounts Payable**

- Accounts Payable Turnover = $163,756 million / $50,065 million
- Accounts Payable Turnover =
**3.27**

### Explanation

The Efficiency Formula can be calculated by using the following steps:

**Step 1:** Firstly, determine the net sales achieved by the company during the given period of time.

**Step 2:** Next, determine the cost of goods sold which is the aggregate of all the directly assignable cost of production, primarily raw material cost and direct labor cost. It is also reported as cost of sales in many income statements.

**Step 3:** Next, determine the average net fixed assets which are the average of the net fixed assets at the beginning and at the end of the period. The net fixed asset is gross block minus accumulated depreciation.

**Average Net Fixed Assets = (Opening Net Fixed Asset + Closing Net Fixed Asset) / 2**

**Step 4:** Next, determine the average accounts receivable which are the average of the accounts receivable at the beginning and at the end of the period.

**Average Accounts Receivable = (Opening Accounts Receivable + Closing Accounts Receivable) / 2**

**Step 5:** Next, determine the average inventory which is the average of the inventory at the beginning and at the end of the period.

**Average Inventory = (Opening Inventory + Closing Inventory) / 2**

**Step 6:** Next, determine the average accounts payable which is the average of the accounts payable at the beginning and at the end of the period.

**Average Accounts Payable = (Opening Accounts Payable + Closing Accounts Payable) / 2**

**Step 7:** Therefore, the formula for the fixed asset turnover ratio can be derived by dividing the net sales (step 1) by the average net fixed assets (step 3) as shown below.

**Fixed Asset Turnover = Net Sales / Average Net Fixed Assets**

**Step 8:** Therefore, the formula for the accounts receivable turnover ratio can be derived by dividing the net sales (step 1) by the average accounts receivable (step 4) as shown below.

**Accounts Receivable Turnover = Net Sales / Average Accounts Receivable**

**Step 9:** Therefore, the formula for inventory turnover ratio can be derived by dividing the cost of goods sold (step 2) by the average inventory (step 5) as shown below.

**Inventory Turnover = Cost of Goods Sold / Average Inventory**

**Step 10:** Therefore, the formula for the accounts payable turnover ratio can be derived by dividing the cost of goods sold (step 2) by the average accounts payable (step 6) as shown below.

**Accounts Payable Turnover = Cost of Goods Sold / Average Accounts Payable**

### Relevance and Use of Efficiency Formula

It is important for a business to understand the concept of efficiency ratios because these ratios are used to judge the capability of the management. Efficiency ratios primarily measure the time that a company takes to collect its receivables from the customer or to convert inventory into revenue or the return generated on the invested capital. A comparison of the efficiency ratio with the industry benchmarks can provide useful insights about a company’s operation.

### Recommended Articles

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