Difference Between Depreciation vs Amortization
Depreciation vs Amortization both are tools to reallocate the cost of the Company’s Assets over the lifespan of specific assets which results in the reduction in the cost of an asset over its lifespan. All the assets used by Companies in their business to generate revenue have a certain lifespan and the cost of assets are reallocated over their lifespan for accounting and tax purposes.
Depreciation refers to the reduction in the cost of the tangible fixed assets over its lifespan which is proportionate to the use of the asset in that specific year. The example of tangible assets which are depreciated is the plant, equipment, machinery, building, and furniture.
Depreciation of the tangible assets can be done by using either a straight line method or accelerated depreciation method.
Amortization refers to the reduction in the cost of the intangible assets over its lifespan. The example of intangible assets which are amortized are patents, trademarks, lease rental agreements, concession rights, brand value etc.
Amortization of the intangible assets is mostly done using the straight-line method.
Head To Head Comparison Between Depreciation vs Amortization(Infographics)
Below is the top 9 difference between Depreciation vs Amortization
Key Differences Between Depreciation vs Amortization
Both Depreciation vs Amortization are popular choices in the market; let us discuss some of the major Difference Between Depreciation vs Amortization:
- Depreciation is used to distribute and expense out the cost of Tangible Asset over its useful life. However, Amortization is used to expense out the value of Intangible assets over its useful life.
- Tangible Assets are depreciated using either the straight-line method or accelerated depreciation method. However, amortization of intangible assets is mostly done using only the straight-line method.
- Tangible assets carry some salvage value which is used in the calculation of depreciation. Intangible assets don’t have any salvage value.
- Both depreciation and amortization are used in the finance industry for accounting and tax purposes.
- Both depreciation and amortization are recognized as an expense in profit and loss statement of the Company for taxation purpose.
- Taxation advantage is more significant in the case of depreciation in comparison to amortization as an accelerated method of depreciation can be used in case of tangible assets.
- Journal entries for both depreciation vs amortization is the credit to Accumulated Depreciation/Amortization account and a debit to depreciation/amortization expense account.
- Depreciation is applicable to assets such as plant, building, machinery, equipment or any tangible fixed assets. However, amortization is applicable to intangible assets such as copyrights, patent, collection rights, brand value etc.
Depreciation vs Amortization Comparison Table
Below is the 9 topmost comparison between Depreciation vs Amortization
|1||Definition||Depreciation refers to the reduction in the cost of the tangible fixed assets over its lifespan which is proportionate to the use of the asset in that specific year.||Amortization refers to the reduction in the cost of the intangible assets over its lifespan.|
|2||A formula to calculate Depreciation||Annual Depreciation=
(Cost of Tangible Asset-Salvage Value)/Useful Life
(Cost of Intangible Asset)/Useful Life
|3||Meaning||Depreciation and Amortization both are tools to distribute the cost of tangible/intangible assets over their useful life and recognize the same as an expense in Profit and Loss Statement.|
|4||Applicability||Depreciation is applicable to only tangible assets such as Plant, Machine, Equipment, Building etc.||Amortization is applicable to only intangible assets such as patents, trademarks, lease rental agreements, concession rights, brand value etc.|
|5||Method of Implementation||Either Straight Line Method (SLM) or Accelerated Depreciation method can be used for depreciation of Tangible Assets.||Mostly Straight Line Method is used for Amortization of Intangible Assets.|
|6||Salvage Value||Tangible Assets have a salvage value (Value after useful life) after their lifespan, which is used for calculating the year on year depreciation.||Intangible Assets don’t have any salvage value.|
|7||Recognition as Expense||Depreciation can be recognized as expenses in the Profit and Loss statement of the Company and can be used for taxation purpose.
However, Depreciation can be more useful for taxation purpose as a company can use accelerated depreciation to show higher expenses in initial years.
|Amortization (similar to depreciation) also can be recognized as expenses in the Profit and Loss statement of the Company and can be used for taxation purpose.
The company mostly use the straight-line method for recognizing the amortization expense.
|8||Journal Entry||Depreciation Expense- Debit
Accumulated Depreciation- Credit
|Amortization Expense- Debit
Accumulated Amortization- Credit
|9||Example||The example of assets where depreciation can be used is the plant, building, machine, equipment etc.||The example of intangible assets which are amortized are patents, trademarks, lease rental agreements, concession rights, brand value etc.
Examples of Depreciation vs Amortization
Example of Depreciation
A Company purchased a machine at $100 million. The life of the machine is 5 Years. The salvage value of the machine is 10% of the purchase value. The depreciation as per the straight-line method is as below:
- Cost of Machine= $100 million
- Salvage Value= 100*10%= $10 million
- Depreciable value = Cost of Machine –Savage Value
- Depreciable value = 100-10= $90 million
- Life of the Machine= 5 Years
Now we will find out the Annual Depreciation for the machine by using the Annual Depreciation formula.
Annual Depreciation for the Machine = Depreciable value/life of the machine
Annual Depreciation for the Machine = 90/5
Annual Depreciation for the Machine = $18 million
Calculation of depreciation year on year and reduction in asset value is provided in below table:
|Opening Depreciation (million $)||0||18||36||54||72|
|Addition (million $)||18||18||18||18||18|
|Cumulative Depreciation (million $)||18||36||54||72||90|
|Cost of Fixed Asset(million $)= A||100||100||100||100||100|
|Accumulated Depreciation(million $)= B||18||36||54||72||90|
|Net Cost of the Asset(million $)= A-B||82||64||46||28||10|
Example of Amortization
A Company involved in construction, development, and operation of roads and highways has been granted a toll collection right of $800 million by the highway ministry to be collected over 20 Years.
Amortization expenses which the Company can claim under the straight-line method are as under:
Annual Amortization Expense = (Value of Toll Collection Right-Salvage Value)/Useful Life
Annual Amortization Expense = (800-0)/20 Years
Annual Amortization Expense = $40 million
Note: Generally, Amortization is implemented using a straight-line method and salvage value of intangible assets are zero.
Conclusion – Depreciation vs Amortization
Depreciation vs Amortization both are used to distribute the cost of an asset (be it tangible or intangible) over its useful life. Depreciation is more precisely used for tangible assets and amortization is used for intangible assets. Both Depreciation vs Amortization are recognized as expenses in the revenue statement of the Companies and used for taxation purpose. Both Depreciation vs Amortization broadly serves the purpose of taxation and accounting.
This has a been a guide to the top difference between Depreciation vs Amortization. Here we also discuss the Depreciation vs Amortization key differences with infographics, and comparison table. You may also have a look at the following articles to learn more.