Spring Framework Interview Questions and Answers
Spring Framework interview questions can test a developer’s knowledge of Spring – one of the most popular Java frameworks. It is a highly-demanded skill in the IT industry. As such, software developers working in Spring development earn an average pay of $121,047 per year. Hence, it is not surprising that many developers learn Java Spring development. Practicing and self-testing before an interview is essential. For that purpose, candidates may use a good set of popularly asked Spring framework interview questions, like the ones listed in this article, to improve their skills.
Table of Contents
- Spring Framework Interview Questions (Basic)
- Spring Framework Interview Questions (Advanced)
- Final Thoughts
- Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)
- Recommended Articles
- Spring framework is a popular Java-based application framework used to build enterprise-scale applications.
- Dependency Injection and Inversion of Control are critical concepts in the Spring framework.
- Spring provides a range of modules for different functionalities, such as JDBC, MVC, Security, and more.
- Understanding the Bean lifecycle and configuration options is essential for Spring developers.
- Knowledge of Spring Boot and its auto-configuration features can give you an edge in your Spring framework interview.
Part 1 – Spring Framework Interview Questions and Answers (Basic)
Q1. What are some of the important features of the Spring Framework?
- Dependency Injection (DI): The Spring Framework implements DI and allows developers to reduce component coupling. This makes it easier to test and maintain code.
- Inversion of Control (IoC): Spring also implements IoC, which allows developers to focus on writing business logic and reduces the need for boilerplate code.
- AOP Framework: Spring provides a powerful AOP framework that allows developers to apply cross-cutting concerns, such as logging, transaction management, and security, to their applications.
- Lightweight: The Spring Framework is lightweight and modular, allowing developers to use only the needed components.
- Integration: Spring integrates various popular frameworks and technologies, including Hibernate, JPA, Struts, and JSF.
- Transaction Management: The Spring Framework offers a powerful transaction management system that supports declarative and programmatic transaction management.
Q2. Explain dependency injection.
Dependency Injection (DI) is a programming design pattern that allows object creation and provision of their dependencies by an external entity. Some key features-
- Developers can create loosely linked components for their applications using the design pattern known as DI.
- With DI, dependencies are not made by the components themselves. Instead, a third-party entity passes the dependencies on to them.
- Decoupling an application’s components with DI makes testing, maintenance, and modification of applications more accessible.
- DI implementation occurs in different ways, such as constructor injection, setter injection, or interface injection.
Q3. What are the benefits of using Spring Tool Suite?
Spring Tool Suite (STS) is an Integrated Development Environment (IDE) for Java and the Spring Framework. Here are some benefits of using Spring Tool Suite:
- Integration with the Spring Framework: STS provides seamless integration with the Spring Framework, making it easier to develop, test, and deploy Spring-based applications.
- Integrated Git support: STS includes integrated support for Git, a popular version control system, which makes it easier to manage source code.
- Advanced debugging: STS provides advanced debugging tools that allow developers to debug complex applications quickly.
- Built-in Maven support: STS includes built-in support for Maven, a popular build automation tool, which makes it easier to manage dependencies and build applications.
- Enhanced productivity: STS includes various productivity-enhancing features, such as auto-complete, code highlighting, and quick fixes.
Q4. Name some important Spring modules.
- Spring Context – for dependency injection.
- Spring AOP – for Aspect-Oriented Programming.
- Spring DAO – for information operations using DAO pattern
- Spring JDBC – for JDBC and DataSource support.
- Spring ORM – for ORM tools support like Hibernate
- Spring Net Module – for making net applications.
- Spring MVC – Model-View-Controller implementation for making net applications, net services, etc.
Q5. Explain Aspect, Advice, Pointcut, JoinPoint, and Advice Arguments in AOP.
- Aspect: An aspect is a modular unit of cross-cutting functionality that can apply to multiple points in an application. It encapsulates standard functionality that cuts across different classes and objects in the application, such as logging, security, and transaction management.
- Advice: Advice is the action taken by an aspect at a particular join point in the application. It is the code that runs when a specific point cut matches during the execution of the application. There are several types of advice, including “before,” “after,” “around,” and “after-throwing” advice.
- Pointcut: A pointcut is a predicate specifying which application join points should intercept by an aspect. Pointcuts define using different expressions, such as method names, class names, and annotations.
- Join Point: A join point is a specific point in the execution of a program, such as a method invocation or field access. Join points are the points in the application where an aspect applies. The aspect code can access information about the joining point, such as the target object and method arguments.
- Advice Arguments: Advice arguments are the additional parameters that can pass to advise methods. These parameters pass additional context information to the advice, such as the target object, method arguments, or exception objects.
Part 2 – Spring Framework Interview Questions and Answers (Advanced)
Q6. What is the difference between Spring AOP and AspectJ AOP?
|Feature||Spring AOP||AspectJ AOP|
|Aspect Oriented Language||Spring AOP uses Java annotations||AspectJ uses a dedicated AspectJ language and syntax|
|Joinpoints||Limited to method execution||Supports a wide range of joinpoints, including fields|
|Pointcut Expressions||Limited in syntax and flexibility||Rich and flexible syntax for defining pointcuts|
|Performance||Lightweight and less overhead||Heavier and more powerful, with higher overhead|
|Cross-cutting Concerns||Supports fundamental cross-cutting concerns like caching, transactions, and security||Supports advanced cross-cutting concerns and enables more powerful weaving|
|Integration||Seamlessly integrated with Spring Framework||Works independently or integrated with Spring Framework|
Q7. What is a Spring Bean?
- In the Spring Framework, a “bean” is a Java object that instantiates and assembles.
- Spring IoC container manages it.
- A Spring Bean is a fundamental building block of a Spring application, typically defined in the Spring configuration file.
- A Spring Bean is a Java object managed by the Spring IoC container.
- The Spring IoC container creates and manages the lifecycle of Spring beans, which includes instantiating them, wiring their dependencies, and providing them to other beans.
Q8. What are the different scopes of Spring beans?
- Singleton: This is the default scope for Spring beans. It means that only one instance of the bean creates for the entire application context. All subsequent requests for the bean will return the same instance.
- Prototype: In this scope, a new instance of the bean creates every time one requests the bean. This means that multiple instances of the bean can coexist in the application context.
- Request: This scope is specific to web applications. It means that a new instance of the bean creates for each HTTP request processed by the web application.
- Session: This scope is also specific to web applications. It means that a new instance of the bean creates for each HTTP session started by the web application.
- Global session: This scope works in a portlet context. It is similar to the session scope, but the bean instance scopes to the global session, which spans multiple portlets in a portlet web application.
- Custom Scopes: Spring also allows developers to define their custom scopes.
Q9. What is the Spring Bean life cycle?
The Spring Bean life cycle refers to the various stages a Spring bean goes through during its lifecycle, from instantiation to disposal.
- Instantiation: Creating a bean instance by calling the bean constructor.
- Populate Properties: The Spring container sets the values of the properties and dependencies for the bean.
- BeanNameAware: Giving the bean a name for referencing.
- BeanFactoryAware: Giving the bean a reference to the BeanFactory that created it.
- Pre-Initialization: Execution of any custom logic defined in the bean’s initialization methods.
- Initialization: The bean is fully initialized and ready for use.
- Post-Initialization: Execution of any custom logic defined in the bean’s post-initialization methods.
- Destruction: Preparation of the bean for disposal and performing any cleanup operations.
- Disposable: Destruction of the bean and release of resources.
Q10. Does Spring Bean provide thread safety?
- The scope of a spring bean determines its thread safety.
- Because there is only one instance of the bean for the entire application environment, a Spring Bean defined with the scope of “singleton” is not automatically thread-safe.
- Two or more threads can interfere with one another’s actions if they access the same singleton bean instance.
- On the other hand, if a Spring Bean defines with a scope of “prototype,” a new instance of the bean creates each time on request.
- This means that each thread will have its bean instance, ensuring thread safety.
- Developers can make a Spring Bean thread-safe in addition to the scope by synchronizing the methods that modify the bean’s state or using other concurrency control mechanisms such as locks or semaphores.
A popular and effective framework for creating Java-based applications is the Spring Framework. As a result, it is not surprising that many employers inquire the candidates about Spring Framework during the interview process. By studying these questions, candidates can improve their chances of job interview success. Essential topics include elements of the Spring Framework. IoC containers, dependency injection, AOP, Spring MVC, and data access with Spring. Candidates can highlight their knowledge of the Spring Framework and their value as possible employees by studying these Spring framework interview questions and refining their responses.
Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)
1. How do I prepare for a Spring interview?
Answer: To prepare for a Spring interview, you can start by reviewing the fundamental concepts of the Spring framework, such as inversion of control (IoC), dependency injection (DI), and aspect-oriented programming (AOP). You can also practice coding exercises and familiarize yourself with the various components and modules of the Spring framework.
2. What are the main concepts of the Spring Framework?
Answer: The main concepts of the Spring Framework include:
- Inversion of Control (IoC)
- Dependency Injection (DI)
- Aspect-Oriented Programming (AOP)
3. What is Spring Framework used for?
Answer: The Spring Framework allows the development of enterprise-level Java applications. It provides a comprehensive programming and configuration model for modern Java-based enterprise applications, covering various areas such as web development, data access, messaging, and testing.
4. What are the types of Spring Framework?
Answer: The types of Spring Framework include:
- Spring Core
- Spring MVC
- Spring Data
- Spring Security
- Spring Integration
- Spring Boot
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