Introduction to OOP in Python
Concepts of Object Oriented Programming in Python
The object-oriented programming model works by interacting and invoking the properties of different objects. It has concepts such as Classes, Objects, Polymorphic, Encapsulation, Inheritance, and Abstraction. The different features of Object Oriented Programming are as below:
This blueprint of the object defines the fields or attributes and methods under which the real functionality lies within. These attributes and methods are called members, and these members can be accessed based on the defined access modifiers during the declaration of members.
An object is called an instance of the Class, which can be declared and instantiated by calling the Class’s Constructor. An object will have a state, and the state will contain data that the class’s attributes will hold.
This is the third step in which the data will be visualized, cleaned, transformed, and exposed by reducing useless information and transforming it into important sets of information to obtain some valuable information from the existing data.
Polymorphism is the process of performing a single task in different possible ways. Polymorphism can be achieved in two ways called method overloading and method overriding. Method overloading is also called Compile Time Polymorphism, whereas Method Overriding is also called Run Time Polymorphism.
This is the process of encapsulating which means hiding or binding, or wrapping the code into a single unit or module, defined as Class. The encapsulation feature of object-oriented programming can be achieved by using class. An Object is said to be encapsulated as the members of the class are private (access modifier), which can be accessed only by using getters and setters methods in the class.
The object-oriented feature abstraction can be defined as the process of hiding the implementation of the functionalities by exposing only the required interfaces or accessing methods to invoke the ways of the Implementation class. The abstraction can be achieved in a programming language by defining an Interface or Abstract Class.
Comparison with other object oriented programming languages
Difference between Object Oriented and Non-Object Oriented Programming Languages
- The Object Oriented languages have powerful features to develop real-world scenario applications, whereas Non-Object Oriented languages, such as Procedural languages, have limited features to relate to real-time applications. Object Oriented Programming follows a bottom-up approach, whereas the Non-Object Oriented Programming model follows a top-down approach.
- Programming features will be divided into methods or objects where as Non-Object Oriented Programming defines functions as the piece of code to perform operations.
- Data hiding can be done in Object Oriented Programming whereas Data hiding is not possible in Non-Object Oriented Programming.
- Inheritance and Abstraction are the powerful features present in Object Oriented Programming, whereas these do not exist in Non-Object Oriented Programming.
- Operator Overloading is allowed in Object Oriented Programming, whereas not in Non-Object Oriented Programming. Examples of Non-Object Oriented Programming are Pascal, FORTRAN, etc.
The Object Oriented features of a programming language give a rich set of features for developing larger and more complex applications to enable and run the larger businesses in the current digital world with increasing data and customers. Python can be used to develop a web application by using a framework called Django which will provide most of the implementations to ease web development. Several other frameworks can be used along with Python to develop different applications for the additional scenario-based requirements. Python also has other features, such as Functional, procedural, reflective, imperative, etc., other than Object Oriented. Besides OOP, Python provides other functionalities such as Networking, Web frameworks, Graphical User Interfaces, Databases, Automation, etc.
This is a guide to Object Oriented Programming in Python. Here we discuss the different concepts and the applications of Object Oriented Programming in Python. You may also look at the following article to learn more –