Definition of MySQL Incremental Backup
As we know that to take a backup of a huge database may cause overwork to the server. Also, taking backup at night and if failure happens then, the data can be lost for the whole day or more. So, for this condition to be avoided, the incremental backup concept is created for point-to-point backup processing. In MySQL, point-in-time backup is occasionally known to be an incremental backup which arises to the rescue. Therefore, MySQL Incremental Backup is defined as the backups that duplicate only the data altered since the preceding backup. This can be performed regularly because their size is small and do not burden the server.
MySQL Incremental Backup is performed by taking a backup of MySQL binary logs. We should check to be confirmed that the binary logs in the MySQL server are supported since the server implements these binary logs to save the data changes. After that, we can edit the MySQL config file named my.cnf and confirm for this line as follows:
Log_bin = /var/log/mysql/mysql-bin.log
and also the line,
expire_logs_days = 8
Here, the first line conveys MySQL to activate binary logging and then to save the logs files in the path directory: /var/log/mysql. After that, the second line conveys that all the logs which are older than 8 days must be removed automatically.
Suppose we have a database created as test_db, then we can take the backup as:
mysql@mysqlhost 1$ mysql –u-root-p test_db<full_backup.sql
For incremental backup type, this can be used consisting of binary log creation and adding start or stop datetime in the syntax:
mysql@mysqlhost 1$ mysqlbinlog – stop-datetime=”2021-05-29 17:00:00” mysql-bin.0000005 | mysql –u-root-p test_db
How to Perform Incremental backup in MySQL?
MySQL Incremental backup is different from the full backup process. In the full backup method, the backup comprises of all the data controlled by any MySQL server but at a provided point in time. Whereas in the incremental backup method, the backup comprises all the alterations completed to the data during a provided time span, i.e. from one point to another.
Several databases deliver several implementations of incremental backups. For example, while in SQL Server, it offers a transaction and differential log backup. Also, in Oracle databases, you can find this to be executed through RMAN. On the other hand, in PostgreSQL, this process takes place by means of WAL files as a backup.
Now, talking about MySQL, it provides many methods for creating an incremental backup. In addition to this, turnkey solutions are available which permit the user to mechanize the process. However, in this series, before we proceed with considering on making the incremental backups, it should be remembered that MySQL Incremental backups include no eliminating the need for full-type backups.
MySQL Enterprise Backup offers both differential and incremental backups. The user should determine the strategy for deciding on which to implement by viewing at some factors such as storage space the user holds, speed to be capable of restoring the data records, and more.
Hence, to increase the speed and reduce the storage capacity used to take regular backups in MySQL, we can assume something good portion that remains unaltered over time. This can be done by backing up only the data changes that occurred over time rather than taking the whole data backups, which may overload the server. This can be applied by one of the below procedure, but before this, we need to initially make a full backup including all the data and then follow these things:
- Executing a series of Differential backups
- Executing a series of incremental backups
Examples of MySQL Incremental Backup
Let us discuss some utilities, procedures, and tools for these MySQL Incremental Backups. Eventually, since we can define a backup as a file or a group of files. MySQL provides three methods to generate incremental backups whose overviews are explained below:
1. Binary Logs
In these binary log files, all the changes which have happened in the MySQL databases are sequentially written by the MySQL server. The Binary logs are comprised across the complete server within the file named as mysql.cnf. After enabling binary logs in the server, the type of files like mysql-bin.<name of binary log> will be displayed in the directory identified in the configuration. With this, the user is able to extract the SQL declarations from binary logs files by means of the mysqlbinlog utility. When the extracted SQL declarations are applied successively to the database then, one can repair the database to any particular date. But for restoring, we require a full backup that was created by means of mysqldump with the parameter –flush-logs and, after that, whatever binary log files are created. It is a very fast backup technique as it just duplicates the files.
For MySQL Server backups, this Xtrabackup utility is provided by Percona as an open-source. Opposing mysqlbinlog and mysqldump that generates an SQL script, this Xtrabackup creates a physical backup by doubling the database files. Generally, to replicate the files of the database, one requires to turn off the MySQL Server; however, the individuality of Xtrabackup is that it replicas the live files of the database. On prior to full backups, this Xtrabackup will also allow for making MySQL incremental backups that are produced depending on another backup that may be stored physically in the file system somewhere.
3. MySQL Enterprise backup
This is a solution that is a portion of MySQL Enterprise Edition and is delivered by Oracle. The MySQL Enterprise Edition arises with the mysqlbackup utility, which permits a user to execute restore and backup operations. Using mysqlbackup, the incremental backup is created by specifying values in the process for the parameter as –incremental-base along with defining the LSN, i.e. log sequence number.
SQLBak utility provides a service that produces SQL instance backups and then directs them to the cloud storage such as Amazon S3, Azure Storage, OneDrive, Dropbox, Backblaze B2, Google Drive, etc. It includes one of the service features of creating MySQL incremental backups on the basis of binary logs. In addition, it offers compression, encryption as well as email notification.
- If you are not aware of backing up the MySQL databases until now, let’s start performing it before you drop the precious data info.
- Few people have a concept that they may not require backup as they store replication, but it’s not ok. This replication saves the data against hardware disasters, but backups in MySQL will defend against human faults.
- Hence, MySQL Incremental Backup helps to create such duplicity of data without overloading the server and can be restored to recuse in need.
This is a guide to MySQL Incremental Backup. Here we discuss how to Perform Incremental backup in MySQL along with syntax and examples. You may also have a look at the following articles to learn more –