Updated April 20, 2023
Difference Between Multiprogramming vs Multitasking
Multiprogramming is the ability of the system which allows more than one user to use the computer at the same time using a single CPU. This idea is to optimize the processing time of the single processor effectively. to create multiple processes by each process that belongs to the different uses of the same system. It keeps the CPU busy which increases the throughput of the system.
Multitasking means the parallel/concurrent execution of multiple processes by one user on the same computer which might be using a single or multiple CPU for processing. For example, in a multitasking operating system, we can work on the word document or presentation while listening to music and surfing the internet using the web browser or using some other app.
Head to Head Comparison between Multiprogramming vs Multitasking (Infographics)
Below are the top 8 differences between multiprogramming vs multitasking:
Key Differences between Multiprogramming vs Multitasking
Following are the key differences between multiprogramming vs multitasking:
- The term multiprogramming refers to the parallel execution of the process, which means multiple processes can execute concurrently by using a single processor at the same time, which increases the throughput of the system, where the operating system is responsible to manage all the processes effectively.
- Whereas multitasking refers to the ability of the operating system to execute multiple tasks at the same time using single or multiple processors, implementation of the system uses two or more CPUs or multi-core CPUs within a single system for allocation and execution of the task in a job scheduling order which shares common resources including CPU, memory and I/O.
- Multiprogramming depends on the concept of context switching, this terminology refers to the switching of the CPU among multiple processes – from one process or thread to another process or thread for accomplishing the higher degree of the utilization of the single CPU.
- Context switching is achieved by using the program control block which stores the id of the process, current state of an active process, memory address/data of the process, program counters, registers of the process; for the CPU, so that the process can resume its execution from the same state, from where it has switched. Whereas in multitasking, on the other hand, depends on the concept of time/resource sharing which shares the CPU time among each of the task based on a priority of the task and its scheduling algorithm, operating system in a portion of the time-shared system allowing CPU to share the same resources simultaneously among the uses. It’s an extension of multiprogramming.
- Both of these terms are common and refers almost the same meaning used in modern operating systems, but with separate objectives. The concept of multiprogramming is based on the ability of the system to store the program or instruction for longer period of time in order to execute it concurrently by distributing the execution load among the CPU core which creates the illusion for multiprogramming system, CPU is allocated for the execution of a program on the basis of the priority or the program/job scheduling algorithm and OS is responsible for managing execution of the part of one program at a time, followed by a part of another program and process and so on. Whereas In a multitasking system, the CPU allows running multiple processes and its corresponding threads, concurrently via time-sharing mechanism and executes them on the basis of given instruction.
- Multiprogramming operating system, provide complete transparency between the users as the system is shared by the multiple users simultaneously where multiple users share the same CPU simultaneously, where the CPU switching from one user to another is taken place very rapidly which improves the degree of the CPU utilization. It enables the effective allocation of resources automatically without user interaction and manual assignment with the system. The operating system executes a block of the program followed by the block/part of the execution of another program, but it creates an illusion that all the programs are executed simultaneously. Whereas in the multitasking operating system, multiple users are interchanged by the multiple programs or processes or threads and each process takes a small execution time of the CPU (here the job execution is based on the time-sharing and resource mechanism) to execute itself and its related processes. The process is taken place rapidly so it appears that multiple tasks of the different program are executing simultaneously/concurrently.
Multiprogramming vs Multitasking Comparison Table
Let us look at the comparison table of multiprogramming vs multitasking.
|More than one program can run at the same time by the job scheduling algorithm.||Multiple tasks can run at the same time by the time-sharing mechanism.|
|It is based on the context switching mechanism.||It is based on the time-sharing mechanism.|
|Multiple programs can store into the main memory simultaneously to improve CPU utilization.||It allows executing multiple tasks and process and the same time which increases the CPU performance effectively.|
|It includes the single CPU to execute the program.||It uses multiple CPU for the task allocation.|
|CPU switch among the program/process rapidly in a multiuser environment.||CPU switch among the process of the different program in the single-user environment.|
|It takes more time to execute the process.||It takes less time to execute the process and its thread.|
|This is useful to reduce/decrease the CPU idle time as much as possible and increasing the throughput.||This is useful to run multiple tasks concurrently which increase the CPU and the system throughput, effectively.|
|In a multi-programmed system, when one job or process finishes its execution or goes for an I/O task, the system temporary suspends that job, and chooses another job from the job scheduling pool (waiting queue), and give it to the CPU for the execution.||In a multiprocessing system, multiple processes can be executed simultaneously by allocating the CPU for a fixed amount of time for execution.|
In a multi-programmed system, there is no CPU time is lapsed by the system waiting for the new process need to come for execution. In a multitasking system, the CPU makes the processes to share time slices or to allocate the CPU between the process and execute them accordingly on the basis of priority of the process. When the quantum execution time of the one process is finished then the process suspended (process expires) by the CPU on a temporary basis until its execution turns come next time, and another process starts its execution by assigned CPU.
This is a guide to Multiprogramming vs Multitasking. Here we also discuss the multiprogramming vs multitasking key differences with infographics and comparison table. You may also have a look at the following articles to learn more –