All About The direct tax vs indirect tax
The Direct Tax levy is payable directly by a person or a company who is obliged to pay the direct tax and indirect tax meaning with example the same. Direct taxes can’t be transferred to anybody else. Income tax, as already said, is the commonest form of direct tax. It’s payable by individuals, cooperative societies, Hindu undivided families (HUFs), trusts, and similar organizations, on the total income earned. Indirect Taxes are levied by the government and collected by an intermediary authority from the person who shoulders the ultimate burden of the tax. This means that if you are buying some goods or services from somewhere and if you are the final consumer, the tax levied on the manufacturer will be passed on to you
Direct Tax vs Indirect Tax – As they say, nothing is certain except death and taxes. Since we would like to focus on the more cheerful of these two options, lets’ talk of taxation.
Taxes come in various avatars. They include sales tax, income tax, service tax, corporate tax, and many others. In fact, there are so many taxes that an average person often doesn’t even know that he/she is paying for one.
In this article, we will discuss the following:-
- Direct Tax vs Indirect Tax Infographics
- Direct taxes
- Direct taxes
- Distribution – Direct tax vs Indirect tax
- Examples of Key direct taxes
- Examples of Key Indirect Taxes
- Highlights of direct tax
- Highlights of indirect tax
- Why are taxes necessary?
- Conclusion – Direct tax vs Indirect tax
The 2016 Union Budget is just around the corner, and like all years, there’s a lot of noise regarding taxes. Well, taxes don’t merely mean your income tax. While income tax is an example of direct tax, the ones that we really don’t see are indirect taxes.
The most fundamental classification of Direct tax vs Indirect tax is based on who collects them from the taxpayer.
Here’s how the two Direct tax vs Indirect tax differs.
Direct Tax vs Indirect Tax Infographics
It may include income from salary, house property, professional or business income, capital gains, as well as income from other sources, like the savings account or recurring deposit interests. The tax liability depends on the gender and residential status of a person subject to tax.
Companies are similarly taxed on their earned income. For any Indian company, the tax is mandatory on the income earned within the country and overseas, while in the case of non-resident companies, the tax must be paid on the money earned in India.
House owners have to pay property tax that is applied according to the rules in the state. Lastly, the tax has to be paid on gifts that exceed ₹50,000 per annum.
The responsibility to declare income for the purpose of calculating the direct tax liability is on the individual. Non-payment or evasion could lead to heavy penalties.
Indirect tax increase the total amount you have to pay for some products or services. Sometimes, it could be shown separately from the price of the product or could be included in the price. For instance, the service tax paid on food bills is shown separately, while the tax paid on petrol is included in the price of the product.
There are many other forms of indirect tax. For instance, customs duty is a tax imposed on imported and exported goods to and from the country. Besides, the government charges excise duty on goods and services produced within India for domestic consumption. Service tax is levied on services like travel and recreation, food and beverages, and similar items by the provider, while the value-added tax (VAT) is applied on each stage of the sale of an item in a piecemeal system. The last VAT part is borne by the final consumer. Lastly, there’s a securities transaction tax charged on all transactions carried out in a stock exchange. All these taxes are called indirect taxes because unlike a direct tax, the person paying the tax can pass it on to another party. These taxes are first levied at the manufacturer level and are passed to the final consumer, which is you.
Distribution – Direct tax vs Indirect tax
The gist of the distribution of Direct tax vs Indirect tax lies in the shifting. A tax that can’t be shifted is direct, and the one which can be shifted is indirect. While the conventional distinction between a direct and indirect tax is logical enough, it’s very difficult to apply in practice and calls for a fair knowledge of the behavior of people on indirect tax payment.
Unless you know whether the tax has shifted from an immediate payer to someone else, you can’t categorize it as indirect or direct. Besides, difficulties may arise when the tax is partly shifted and partly borne by the individual on whom it’s imposed.
Does it then mean that a tax can be partly indirect and partly direct? Surely not. It’s better to put it this way that a possibility of shifting to any degree may be regarded as a condition for indirect tax. Lack of shifting, on the other hand, could be regarded as a direct tax.
Several economic experts, however, distinguish between the indirect and direct tax and indirect tax difference on the basis of assessment, instead of the point of assessment. Taxes, direct or indirect, are assessed on expenditure incurred or income earned.
A major criticism of indirect taxation, often mooted, is that it may be regressive. These taxes are collected regardless of the financial position of either party. direct tax and indirect tax meaning with an example, therefore, hit lower-income families harder, especially when imposed on medicine, food, or other essentials, because taxes are based on what a person spends, instead of what he/she earns.
Proponents of direct tax and indirect tax meaning with the example, on the other hand, argue that direct tax and indirect tax meaning with example penalize success by compelling a higher-income household to pay a higher percentage of their income tax. The high rate prompts many people to adopt extraordinary measures for shielding their income from the tax authorities. They also contend that people have discretion over the sales tax amount they pay by controlling consumer spending.
Examples of Key direct taxes
- Income tax: Every so often, the working population of a country, jointly celebrates the freedom, power, and liberty that come with being rewarded for a job well done. The gut-twisting excitement and warmth of achievement usually come at different times, via different channels, for different sections of the society. But there are two things that unite all categories of earners; the feeling of success and achievement, as well as the slight tinge of sadness, noticing that the amount you actually earned, isn’t what you signed for or expected. And that’s because of the income tax you’re supposed to pay.
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An income tax is paid by individuals based on their stable income during a specific financial year. According to the Income Tax Act, “individuals” also include HUFs, trusts, cooperative societies, and all artificial judicial persons. Taxable income means the total earned income minus all applicable exemptions and deductions. Income tax is payable when the net income crosses the minimum taxable limit and is paid according to the differing rates announced in the Union Budget for every slab in a financial year.
- Corporation tax: This tax is paid by businesses and companies operating within the country, on the income earned from all its operations at home and abroad, during a particular financial year. The taxations rates vary, depending on whether the company is incorporated in India or elsewhere.
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- Wealth tax: This tax is levied on individuals, HUFs, and companies, on the value of assets owned in a particular financial year, and on the valuation date. It’s taxed at 1% of the assessee’s net wealth, over ₹30 lakhs. Here, net wealth includes unproductive assets like cash in hand over ₹50,000, any residential property is not let out, bullion or gold jewelry, cars, yachts, aircraft, boats, or urban land. The wealth tax doesn’t include productive assets like bonds, stocks, commercial property, mutual funds, fixed deposits, etc.
- Tax on capital gains: Profits earned from the sale of property fall under capital gains tax. Here, property means precious metals, residential buildings, bonds, stocks, etc. Capital gains tax is charged at two different rates, depending upon how long a property was owned by a taxpayer i.e. long-term capital gains and short-term capital gains. Deciding period of ownership greatly varies among various classes of property.
Examples of Key Indirect Taxes
- Sales tax: This tax is levied on the sale of movable goods. It’s collected by the Union government, in case of inter-state sales i.e. Central Sales Tax (CST), or by state governments for all intra-state sales i.e. Value Added Tax (VAT). The tax rates vary depending upon the type of product.
- Service tax: This tax is a part of the Central Excise in India. It’s a tax imposed on services provided in the country, except in Jammu and Kashmir. The Central Board of Excise Customs (CBEC) has the responsibility to collect the service tax. It’s a type of direct tax and indirect tax difference levied on some specific services known as “taxable services”. Over the past several years, the service tax ambit has been expanded to include new services. A list of negative services has also been recently introduced.
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The object behind imposing service tax is to lessen the degree of taxation on both manufacturing and trading units, sans forcing the government to compromise on revenue. To levy service tax, the value of a taxable service must be the gross amount charged by a service provider for services rendered.
- Excise duty: It’s applicable to the manufacture of goods sold in India. Once the goods are produced, the excise duty is originally paid directly to the Union government by the manufacturer. When the goods reach the buyer from the manufacturer, the tax is bundled by the latter along with the cost of the goods and passed over to the buyer.
- VAT: It’s the tax on the value added to a particular product and a multi-point tax, imposed on every stage of a sale. VAT is collected at the manufacturer/resale stage and contemplates the rebating of tax paid on purchases and inputs.
Highlights of direct tax
- Direct tax helps to reduce disparities in the wealth and income of people.
- Economical because the collection cost is very low for the government.
- Some extent of economic and social justice is achieved because the direct tax is based on the ability to pay.
A direct tax is often considered as progressive tax because of the ability to pay. The direct tax rates of progressive taxes increase with a rise in income and decrease with a fall in income.
Highlights of indirect tax
- Indirect tax can be easily realized because they are already included in the price of the commodity.
- The indirect tax has a greater coverage because every consumer is taxed via the price of the commodity.
- Consumption of harmful commodities like cigarette, alcohol etc. can be discouraged, thus serving a social purpose.
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Why are taxes necessary?
A government needs resources for running the administration of a country. Taxes have been levied ever since public administration came into being with the rule of kings. It’s a system to collect and distribute the surplus held by the rich to the poor. In the present day, taxes are required to fuel a country’s development and to provide various civic amenities. They are often the rider for a country’s growth. In fact, a country’s progress can be measured by how effective and efficient the administration is, rather than by the volume of taxes collected from its citizens and business enterprises. There are many countries that levy a plethora of taxes but spend the money in populist schemes instead for the real welfare of its people.
Conclusion – Direct tax vs Indirect tax
Both Direct tax vs Indirect tax has their own set of purpose. direct tax and indirect tax differences are equitable because they are levied on individuals, according to their ability to pay. They are also economical because of a lower collection cost. However, direct tax doesn’t cover all sections of society.
direct tax and indirect tax differences, on the other hand, are easy to realize because they are comprised in the price of products and services and also have a better coverage of the society. The good thing is that the tax rate is high for harmful products to dissuade people from using them.
Government policies change with time and it affects the taxation system of a country. Tax structures are guided by public welfare demands and the need to foster growth. Authorities, at the same time, must ensure that taxes serve their intended purpose.
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