What is Dependency Ratio?
Dependency Ratio is the percentage of people in the age group who are financially dependent on working-class people describes the country’s social, population structure and help the country’s government to manage policies
It calculates the number of people in a country, who are dependent compared to the number of the working-class population. The simple formula where the number of people from age group zero to fourteen and people above 65 is divided by the number of working-class people i.e. age between fifteen and sixty-five. This ratio tells how much burden country bare to support non-working class population i.e. country’s working population bare in supporting non-working class population. Since government support people in the non-working age group with taxes collected from the working-class population’s income, this ratio tells the picture of social balance in the country.
To understand world scenario United Nation releases data every five years since 1950. World Bank also release dependency data but, the difference between World Bank data and united nation’s data is World Bank only consider non-working age group as people above 65 years and not children.
- High dependency ratio means high burden bare by the young population to manage expenses of the dependent population through childcare, education and pensions.
- Since children become adult and the part of the working population in future, and part of the working population expenses on their growth is considered as an investment instead of spending, many times different ratios are calculated for children and senior citizens. High ratio means high burden bare by the young population to manage expenses of the dependent population through childcare, education and pensions.
Example of Dependency Ratio (With Excel Template)
Let’s take an example to understand the calculation in a better manner.
There are two countries ABC and XYZ with a population of 200,000 and 400,000 people. Data gathered from each country’s government tells us that:
Dependency Ratio is calculated using the formula given below
Dependency Ratio = [(Total Number of Children under age 14) + (Total Number of Senior Citizen above age 65)] / Total Number of People from the age group of 15 to 65 *100
For Country ABC
- Dependency Ratio = (35,000 + 45,000) / 120,000 X 100
- Dependency Ratio = 66.67%
For Country XYZ
- Dependency Ratio = (80,000 + 90,000) / 230,000 X 100
- Dependency Ratio = 73.91%
Child Dependency Ratio is calculated using the formula given below
Dependency Ratio = Total Number of Children Under Age 14 / Total Number of People from the age group of 15 to 65 * 100
For Country ABC
- Dependency Ratio = 35,000 / 120,000 X 100
- Dependency Ratio = 29.17%
For Country XYZ
- Dependency Ratio = 80,000 / 230,000 X 100
- Dependency Ratio = 34.78%
Senior Citizen Dependency Ratio is calculated using the formula given below
Dependency Ratio = Total Number of Senior Citizen above age 65 / Total Number of People from the age group of 15 to 65 *100
For Country ABC
- Dependency Ratio = 45,000 / 120,000 X 100
- Dependency Ratio = 37.50%
For Country XYZ
- Dependency Ratio = 90,000 / 230,000 X 100
- Dependency Ratio = 39.13%
From the above calculations, we can say in terms of total dependency country ABC looks better people compare to XYZ as there is less burden on the working class.
However, there is more than 5% difference in Child and less than 2% difference in Senior citizen dependency ratio between ABC and XYZ, which means child dependency, is more in XYZ. This Ratio can change in future in favour of XYZ.
Below are the important points we should learn:
- Social and Economic Development: It describes population structure in the country and its effect country’s economic and social development in future. This data will help the country and a world government to make policies, and budget adjustments for the future.
- Change in ratio brings population structure and change in development: High dependency ratio means the country’s youth population bare the huge burden of the dependent population. Services needed for childcare, education, pension, healthcare and other services are funded by tax charged on the income of youth working-class population. While a low dependency ratio indicates the country has high working-class youth population. As time passes dependency ratio changes, for which government should be prepared for the future.
- International standards and targets: In 2005 66 per cent of countries government reported concern about the low level of the working-age population around 52 per cent of those countries reported concern about the increasing level of the ageing population i.e. senior citizen and burden their economy have to bare over a period. This situation increases the burden on the working class, which might result in the social unstable environment as time passes because the government might require charging high level of taxes.
- Indicators from past: Dependency ratio is the result of past demographic of country, level of fertility and mortality and country development over the years. It shows the growth trend of the country in terms of health care, gender equality, social situations, business and investment in country and technology development.
Advantages and Disadvantages
Below we will learn the points that explain the limitation and benefits:
- Structure of Population: Dependency ratio describes the structure of the country’s population in terms of working and dependent. This data help the government and people to manage their budget and adjust their health for the future.
- Policy Structure for Future: Data from this ratio helps the government to make necessary policy changes for the future to avoid social and economic issues. Like many countries with high ratio promotes immigration so working-class population from other countries will immigrate with their family and have children, this will help them to manage dependency ratio in future as over a period children from these family will turn into the working-class population and help the growth of the country. Many governments support promotes fitness activity in youth to avoid health issue and medical expense burden on the government. While some governments subsidize child care to promote fertility so families can have more children, which will help a country’s economy in future when these children become an adult and turn into the working-class population.
- Tax Structure: It helps the government to design tax structure as services like childcare, healthcare; pensions are funded through taxes from income of the working-class population.
- Approximation of Data: It does not provide completely accurate information as data suggest that many children below age 15 and senior citizens above age 65 are not completely dependent. This ratio assumes people below age 15 and above age, 65 are economically dependent and people between ages 15 to 65 are working-class populations. The employment level of country, labour policies of the country, the number of entrepreneurs in the country are from different age group, which affects real dependency ratio. It proves the ratio is flawed in terms of information.
- Ignores Other Factors: It ignores other factors like the level of unemployment. Level of competition in terms of employment, which needs higher education and training, which make many young adults remain out of work to get advanced knowledge and training.
- Does not Describe Social Structure in Reality: Although it said to describe the social structure of the country, which can be a false statement as gender neutrality, educational development, social security, law enforcement is an important part of country’s social structure which is not considered while calculation of this ratio. It calculates only numbers, which can be misleading.
It helps in understanding and estimate structure of population to the government of country and world, which helps them to prepare for future through policy changes to manage issue arising in future, at the same time it describes the growth in terms of technology, health care, the business country has made over years. It only considers the number gathered from age group instead of actual numbers of working and dependent population which makes this ratio difficult to understand as it does not provide a clear picture of the economy. The government does not make decisions solely based on dependency ratio but also gathers data from other sources and indicators suggesting different scenario.
This is a guide to the Dependency Ratio. Here we discuss how to calculate along with practical examples with advantages and disadvantages. We also provide a downloadable excel template. You may also look at the following articles to learn more –