Updated May 31, 2023
Introduction to CPU Types
The central processing unit (CPU) is the main and central processor in the system’s electronic circuitry. It processes data and instructions and is responsible for performing arithmetic and logic operations. CPU executes commands according to the computer program. It performs fundamental arithmetic logic, input and output operations, and control circuits that follow the program fed into the computer.
The term CPU refers to a processor that comprises the control unit and process unit, which differentiate the core elements of a computer from external devices such as I/O circuitry and main memory. The trending CPU is now available as microprocessors comprising unit metal-dioxide-semiconductor in the integrated circuits. An integrated chip comprises a CPU, peripheral interfaces, memory chips, microcontrollers, and other systems on the chip. Few systems employ multiple core processors enclosed in a socket termed CPU cores.
- The Central Processing Unit (CPU) provides processing power and instructions to the computer.
- The CPU consists of two main parts ALU and CU, which performs the operations and consist of the control signals.
- The primary function of the CPU is to fetch, process, decode, execute, and store the input data.
Components of CPU
The CPU is the heart of any system. It is usually made of two main components the arithmetic logic unit, or ALU, and the control unit, or CU.
- The ALU involves in performing the logical and arithmetic operations of the CPU. It consists of an arithmetic logic unit and a set of registers where registers are to store data and instructions.
- The control unit fetches, decodes, and executes the instructions. It also involves controlling the flow of data among the several components of the CPU.
- The registers can store data and instructions and are of four types. The control, status, general-purpose, and floating-point registers. General-purpose registers are multi-purpose, floating-point registers that hold floating-point numbers. Control registers have control signals that command other parts of the system. Status registers contain information about the current state of the CPU.
Features of CPU
The performance of the CPU is entirely dependent on the features it has,
1. Cache Memory
- The cache is the small memory inside the processor; it fetches the data from the main memory and sends it to the CPU.
- It has three types, L1 or Layer 1, L2 or Layer 2, and L3 or Layer 3. Each layer’s working, and sizes are as follows, L1 > L2 > L3.
- Processors designed in recent days are multi-core. These cores are independent of each other and consist of their cache memory.
- They help in parallel processing to increase the efficiency of the system.
- The speed of the CPU is usually measured in GHz or MHz. A processor with more frequency performs the task faster.
- A dual-core processor with less frequency runs faster than a single-core processor with more frequency.
- There are two logical cores in the physical unit that works parallelly. The entire process speeds up with the increasing number of cores.
- These are commonly used in virtualized environments, where the administrators assign dedicated workloads to different logical cores.
- The processor should support the memory modules.
- They should be compatible with the motherboards of the system.
- The speed at which communication occurs between the main memory and USB controllers.
- The bandwidth of multi-core processors is greater than that of single-core processors.
Types of CPU
The CPU is a vital element that manages all the calculations and commands transferred to other components of the computer and its peripherals. The rapid speed of the CPU obeys to command of the input program. When linked to the CPU, the components become powerful and dependent. So it is necessary to choose the right one and program it accordingly. The leading manufacturers of CPUs are AMD and Intel. In the past, people used to employ processors to find the right and robust processor.
The Intel 486 was faster than the 386. After introducing the Pentium processor, Intel named all its processors Duron, Celeron, Pentium, and Athlon. Manufacturers build various types of processors with different architectures, such as 64-bit and 32-bit, providing maximum speed and flexible capacity. The major CPU types, including single-core, dual-core, Quad-core, Hexa-core, Octa-core, and Deca-core processors, are explained below.
Different Types of CPUs are mentioned below:
1. Single-core CPU
It is the oldest CPU type available and employed in most personal and official computers. The single-core CPU can execute only one command at a time, which is inefficient for multitasking. It signifies a markable declination in performance if more than a single application is executed. If one operation is started, the second process should wait until the first one is finished. But if it is fed with multiple operations, the computer’s performance is drastically reduced. The performance of a single-core CPU is based on its clock speed by measuring its power.
2. Dual-core CPU
It is a single CPU that comprises two strong cores and functions like a dual CPU acting like one. Unlike CPUs with a single core, processors with dual-core must switch back and forth within a variable array of data streams. When more threads execute, the dual-core CPU effectively manages to multitask. To utilize the dual-core CPU effectively, the running programs and operating system should have a unique code called simultaneous multi-threading technology embedded in it. A dual-core CPU is more rapid than a single-core but is less robust than a quad-core CPU.
3. Quad-core CPU
The quad-core CPU is a refined model of multiple-core CPU features and design with four cores on a single CPU. Like a dual-core CPU, which divides the workload between the cores, quad-core enables effective multitasking. It doesn’t signify any operation that is four times faster than others. Unless the applications and program executed on it by SMT code will fasten the speed and becomes unnoticeable. People who must execute multiple programs simultaneously, such as gamers, use CPUs with multiple cores. The series of Supreme Commander is optimized for multiple-core CPUs.
4. Hexa core processors
It is another multiple-core processor with six cores and can execute the task, which works more rapidly than the quad-core and dual-core processors. For users of a personal computer, the processors of Hexacore is simple, and now Intel launched with Inter core i7 in 2010 with Hexa core processor. But here, the users of smartphones use only quad-core and dual-core processors. Nowadays, smartphones are available with hexacore processors.
5. Octa-core processors
Trending octa-core processors comprise a dual set of quad-core processors that divides activities between the various types. The dual-core is built with two cores, and four are built-in quad-core. Hexa comes with six cores, whereas the octal processors are usually developed with eight independent cores to execute a more efficient practical task and act more rapidly than quad-core processors. Manufacturers often use minimum-powered core sets to perform advanced tasks. The rapid four sets of cores will be kicked in if there is any emergency or requirement. To be precise, manufacturers define octa-core processors with dual-code cores that adjust accordingly to provide adequate performance.
6. Deca-core processor
The processor with a dual-core comprises two cores, 4 cores are available with quad cores; six cores are available in hexacore processors. Manufacturers deploy ten independent systems in Deca-core processors to execute and manage tasks, making them more efficient than other processors developed until now. A PC or device equipped with a deca-core processor is the best option. It is faster than other processors and very successful in multitasking. Deca-core processors are trending with their advanced features. Nowadays, manufacturers equip most smartphones with affordable Deca-core processors that never become outdated quickly. They continuously update the gadgets in the market with new processors to provide people with more valuable features and capabilities.
Mainstream Processors of CPU
Mainstream processors, called mid-range processors, manage high-performance tasks like video editing, 3D gaming, and other multimedia-oriented applications. Manufacturers implement budget-friendly processors to execute fundamental tasks cost-effectively. These processors can easily manage office programs, photo editing, web browsing, and other essential tasks.
Conclusion – Types of CPU
CPU is familiar as the brain of the computer. It processes the input data, stores it, and executes the output results. It constantly follows the computer programs to find and process the data operations on the required data.
Frequently Asked Questions(FAQs)
Q1. What are the functions of the CPU?
Answer: The main function of the CPU is to fetch the data from the main memory, process it according to the program, and execute it to return the necessary output data. Along with that, it also stores the data.
Q2. What are the limitations of CPU?
Answer: Even though the CPU is the main processor, it is not good at parallel processing. Hence it cannot perform large tasks that involve millions of similar operations. The development of the CPU is prolonged.
Q3. What are the factors that affect the speed of the CPU?
Answer: The performance of a processor may vary depending on its clock speed, cache size, and the number of cores it has.
Q4. What are the reasons for the CPU getting damaged?
Answer: The CPU gets damaged for several reasons,
- Changes in the electrical Power include damage due to Voltage spikes, power supply failures, motherboard voltage supply failures, etc.
- Electrostatic discharge can cause permanent damage or harm to the electronic components.
- If you turn on the processor without a heatsink, it can experience thermal overstress, which may cause a quick occurrence.
- The operator can overclock computer hardware components to perform operations faster than initially intended.
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