Updated May 3, 2023
Difference Between Scala vs Java
In this article, we will see an outline of Scala vs Java. Martin Odersky first developed the general-purpose programming language Scala in January 2004. We can operate Scala along with Java. Scala translates into Java byte code and uses Java Virtual Machine. The name is derived from scalable, and it can grow with the demand of users. James Gosling in Sun Microsystems developed the Java language in May 1995. Java is a name given by James while having Java coffee. Java was among the first ten best products in 1995. With the new versions, new features are added to the language, and that makes the language powerful.
Head to Head Comparison between Scala vs Java (Infographics)
Below are the top 27 comparisons between Scala vs Java:
Key Differences Between Scala vs Java
Let us discuss some key differences between Scala and Java in the following points:
- Scala is a combination of functional and object-oriented programming, whereas Java is an object-oriented programming language.
- Scala is more complex when compared with Java.
- Compilation from source code to byte code is slow in Scala, but in Java, compilation happens faster.
- Operator overloading is supported in Scala, whereas, in Java, it is not supported.
- The code written in an older version of Scala is not readable in the new version. Java is backward compatible.
- Functions are treated as variables in Scala, whereas, in Java, functions are treated as objects. One Scala function can accept another function. Hence, Java is rightly called as Object-Oriented Programming Language.
- Codes are shorter and written in a compact form in Scala. In Java, codes are written in long-form.
- Scala variables are immutable, which is set by default. Java variables are mutable.
- In Scala, everything is treated as an instance of the class, and hence it acts as Object-Oriented Language. Java has primitives and statics in the language.
- Operators are treated using method calls in Scala. The method call is not present in Java.
- Scala is able to do functional programming and has multi-core architecture. Java is not a type of functional programming, and its architecture is different from Scala.
- Scala supports type interference, whereas Java does not support the same.
- Scala has a top-down approach, whereas Java has a bottom-up approach.
- The features are highly scalable in Scala, while in Java, it is not scalable.
- The syntax of Scala is simple, whereas Java has complex syntax.
- Rewriting of code is not needed in Scala, while in Java, rewriting is needed.
- Scala offers fewer defects and bug-free codes, whereas Java is not sure about bug-free codes. But when the bug happens, it is easy to solve in Java.
- Scala has good processing ability when compared with Java.
- Scala has concurrency that helps in parallelizing the tasks, whereas Java does not support concurrency.
- Third-party libraries are more in Scala, and most libraries are from Java. Java does not have third party libraries and does no support Scala libraries.
Scala vs Java Comparison Table
The table below summarizes the comparisons between Scala and Java.
|Scala has nested codes and is less readable.
|Java is more readable.
|Lazy evaluation is supported, and hence it delays complex computation unless necessary.
|Lazy evaluation is not supported and does not support computation.
|Scala does not use static keyword.
|Java uses a static keyword.
|Operations on entities are treated similarly.
|Operations on entities are treated differently.
|Scala code is difficult to learn.
|Java code is easier when compared with Scala.
|Scala is a statically typed language.
|Java is a dynamically typed language.
|Scala is a machine-compiled language.
|Java is an object-oriented language.
|Scala has strong tools and applications.
|The tools of Java are not that strong, and APIs are less.
|It is possible to do data analysis in Scala using Apache Spark.
|Java is not much used for data analysis, and it does not integrate with Apache Spark.
|Scala is strong in the functional programming paradigm.
|Java is not strong in functional programming.
|The actor model is used for concurrency.
|Thread based model is used for concurrency, which is a traditional model.
|Scala supports a few frameworks, such as Play, Lift.
|Java supports many frameworks like Spring, Grails.
|It supports multiple inheritances using classes.
|It supports multiple inheritances using interfaces.
|Documentation is not good as it is a comparatively new language than Java.
|Documentation is good in Java.
|The community is not great in Scala.
|The community is good in Java.
|The compiler is faster in Scala.
|The compiler is slow in Java.
|Garbage collection is well controlled and maintained in Scala. The garbage collector should be monitored closely to check the memory space.
|We cannot control the garbage collection.
|Hardware cost is less. Security updates are not frequent. First-class functions are offered in Scala.
|Hardware cost is more. First-class functions are not offered in Java. Since apps can be downloaded from any source, the software is not so safe.
|Scala has a multi-core architecture.
|Java has CPU cores than that of Scala.
|Scala has REPL (Read, Evaluate, Print, and Loop) so that developers can create their own dataset and use a prototype before the project.
|Java does not have a REPL loop.
|Scala has many applications, but developers do not know much about their compilation.
|Java’s compilation is done faster.
|Safety management is not done well in Scala.
|Safety management is done in Java.
|Any number of short-lived objects are created easily.
|Object creation is less in Java, and memory management will be a problem.
|Using Scala, we can easily split up to 4 cores.
|Using Java, cores cannot be split up.
|Customization is better in Scala than Java since Java codes are executed, and both should not look alike.
|Customization is not better in Java when compared with Scala.
|Scala’s validation API is faster and is more customized.
|Java’s validation API is complex.
|Scala has more structures such as case classes, type inference, and Java’s structures.
|The structures of Java are less, and Scala structures are not compatible.
There are many similarities between the languages. Scala can be coded in Java way and can use any Java library. Most of the Java IDE supports Scala programming. Scala is developed from the experience of Java, and therefore Scala is more high-end. Since Scala uses Java libraries and tools, it is easy to develop the language.
This is a guide to the difference between Scala vs Java. Here we also discuss the Scala vs Java key differences with infographics and comparison table in detail. You may also have a look at the following articles to learn more –