Updated April 17, 2023

## Introduction to Radix sort in C program

The following article provides an outline for the Radix sort in C program. Radix sort in any programming language or general is a non-comparative sorting algorithm used for several processes regarding digit manipulation. Radix sort tries not to use much of distributed elements into a bucket for sorting of elements present in the bucket according to the radix and the index within it for a significant number of digits. Preservation of the order and number is the main concern of Radix sort in C due to which it is also known as Bucket sort of digital sort. Radix sort is applied to data that is already sorted in lexical format.

**Syntax**

Radix sort in C don’t have any particular format but have some syntax that is used for representation according to the requirement, which is as follows:

- Take an unsorted list in C.
- Sort in the list using the least significant digit, which provides the following values.
- Then find the next significant bit or the digit, i.e., in 10
^{th}place, which alters the value when compared with the previous list. - Then start sorting using the next most significant digit in 100
^{th}place, which gives the following values within the list.

### How Radix Sort Works in C Program?

- Every sorting algorithm has a working flow, so do Radix sort has. Moreover, it follows the non-comparative algorithm paradigm as mentioned earlier.
- Radix sort basically deals with digits and comparisons being made with the significant bits of all the digits, whether left a significant bit or most significant bit depending on the digits that are part of the linked list and expect to apply radix sort.
- It tries not to use more elements by creating and distributing the elements into buckets for their respective radix to work.
- The indexes and the manipulations with the digits are performed based on more than any significant digit making the entire process sorted and preserving the order to prior steps into it.
- Because of the bucketing process and sorting digitally, it is expected and called bucket sort also.
- There is a history also associated with radix sort that it was earlier used for sorting the punch cards and was pertaining radix sort as its implemented algorithm.
- Radix sort as part of computer had previously been discarded and is considered impractical because the requirement had variable allocation in the index where the size of the variable allocated is unknown and does not satisfy the need.
- Nowadays, radix sort is mostly used for binary strings in nature and integers that have some benchmarks and standards already set and are considered faster than any other general-purpose algorithm also; these algorithms make the implementation 50 times faster than actual.
- Depending on the need, the Radix sort can be used for the implementation process in either of the form, including MSD or LSD (the Least significant bit).
- LSD radix sort uses some sorting pattern and order in which the keys that are shorter in size come first, then comes the keys that are longer in size.
- Once this order is followed, then a check is made to keep a note of whether the elements arranged are in lexical order of arrangement or not.
- This coincides with the order of the normal digits arranged without any specific order; then, such type of ordering or arrangement is commonly considered in LSD form. LSD format of arrangement of elements is also known as a stable sort.
- Then comes into the picture the other format of radix sort, which is MSD and is called as mean significant bit. MSD radix sort mostly used for sorting all the fixed type sorted string or fixed-length integer representation, then if the scenario comes where the order is in the lexical format, then the number comes as output in 1 to 10 format where the sorter keys were left-justified and were padded on the right side with some blanks in order to replace and the sorter values or the sorter keys with the longer and fixed ones.
- Unlike LSD radix sort, MSD radix sort are not considered as stable, but the original duplicate keys with the ordering are always maintained.
- It is not mandatory that the MSD or LSD sorting is related to the handling of input length of the variable or string; rather, it can be used to sort any group of elements with length, radix sort, and group concatenates groups in order size. Thus, all the keys and elements can be sorted accordingly without using any complex process.

### Example of Radix sort in C program

This program demonstrates the implementation of Radix sort in C, as shown in the output.

**Code:**

```
#include<stdio.h>
int gt_Max_vl(int arr_0[], int n_1) {
int mx_vl = arr_0[0];
int k_2;
for (k_2 = 1; k_2 < n_1; k_2++)
if (arr_0[k_2] > mx_vl)
mx_vl = arr_0[k_2];
return mx_vl;
}
void count_Sort_0(int arr_0[], int n_1, int exp) {
int output[n_1];
int k_2, count_val[8] = { 0 };
for (k_2 = 0; k_2 < n_1; k_2++)
count_val[(arr_0[k_2] / exp) % 8]++;
for (k_2 = 1; k_2 < 8; k_2++)
count_val[k_2] += count_val[k_2 - 1];
for (k_2 = n_1 - 1; k_2 >= 0; k_2--) {
output[count_val[(arr_0[k_2] / exp) % 8] - 1] = arr_0[k_2];
count_val[(arr_0[k_2] / exp) % 8]--;
}
for (k_2 = 0; k_2 < n_1; k_2++)
arr_0[k_2] = output[k_2];
}
void radix_sort_0(int arr_0[], int n_1) {
int m_0 = gt_Max_vl(arr_0, n_1);
int exp;
for (exp = 1; m_0 / exp > 0; exp *= 8)
count_Sort_0(arr_0, n_1, exp);
}
void print(int arr_0[], int n_1) {
int k_2;
for (k_2 = 0; k_2 < n_1; k_2++)
printf("%d ", arr_0[k_2]);
}
int main() {
int arr_0[] = { 10, 115, 65, 70, 567, 112, 20, 668 };
int n_1 = sizeof(arr_0) / sizeof(arr_0[0]);
radix_sort_0(arr_0, n_1);
print(arr_0, n_1);
return 0;
}
```

**Output**

### Conclusion

Radix sort, due to its efficient and faster computational value in terms of digits and orders, is really useful nowadays wherever any sorting algorithm is involved. It is used for making the entire sorting paradigm for implementation easy and flexible. LSD and MSD sorting involved makes the traversal and operations smoother and clean.

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