## Introduction to Math Functions in Python

In python, all the mathematical necessities are addressed using the python math module. this module stands out to be largely classified with a variety of mathematical functionalities embedded into it. Almost all popular mathematical functions are implied in the math module. This is an instantly available standard module in python. This can be imported using the import math statement.

### Different Math Functions in Python

All key mathematical functions are deeply described below,

#### 1. Constants

In the case of a mathematical constant, the value for this constant is represented by an unambiguous definition, these definitions at some instances are represented by means of any special symbols or by any famous mathematicians names or by any other popular means. Constants occur within numerous areas of mathematics, by means of constants such as π and e happening in miscellaneous circumstances like number theory, geometry, and calculus.

The meaning of a constant to arise “naturally”, and makes a constant “interesting”, is in due course material of need, and a number of mathematical constants are prominent more for chronological grounds than by means for their fundamental mathematical interest. The more well-liked constants comprise been studied all the way through the ages and computed to a lot of decimal places.

Constants |
Description |

pi | returns 3.141592 |

E | returns 0.718282 |

nan | Not a number |

inf | infinite |

**Example :**

`import math`

print( "CONSTANTS IN PYTHON")

print(" PI value : " , math.pi)

print(" E value : " , math.e)

print(" nan value : " , math.nan)

print(" E value : " , math.inf)

**Output :**

#### 2. Logarithmic Functions

The inverse for exponentiation is called as a logarithm. For any given number x in order for determining its respective logarithm value, the exponent of another fixed number with base b is calculated. In a more straightforward case, the logarithm calculates or counts the numeral occurrences of the same factor in repeated multiplication;

Ex: 1000 = 10 × 10 × 10 = 103, then the “logarithm to base 10” of 1000 is 3.The logarithm of x to base b is denoted as logb (x ).

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On the other hand, the exponent of a number means the number of times the number is being used in a multiplication factor.

Ex : 82 = 8 × 8 = 64

In words, the representation of 82 could be called “8 to the power 2” or simply as “8 squared” On the other hands, the exponent of a number means the number of times the number is being used in a multiplication factor.

Function |
Description |

exp(x) | Returns e**x |

expm1(x) | Returns e**x – 1 |

log(x[, base]) | x to the base logarithm is returned |

log1p(x) | Base1 logarithm of x value is returned |

log2(x) | Base2 logarithm of x value is returned |

log10(x) | Base10 logarithm of x value is returned |

pow(x, y) | Returns x raised to the power y |

sqrt(x) | Square root value for x is returned |

**Example:**

`import math`

#variable declaration and assignation

Number_1 = 1

Number_2 = 2

Number_3 = 3

Number_4 = 4

# Applying exp() function

print(" EXPONENT VALUE ")

print(" Exponent value: " , math.exp(Number_1))

print(" \n ")

# Applying Base1 logarithm function

print(" BASE1 LOGARITHM " )

print(" BASE1 LOGARITHM VALUE of 2 : ", math.log1p(Number_2))

print(" \n " )

# Applying Base2 logarithm function

print(" BASE2 LOGARITHM " )

print(" BASE2 LOGARITHM VALUE of 2 : ", math.log2(Number_2))

print(" \n " )

# Applying Base10 logarithm function

print(" BASE10 LOGARITHM " )

print(" BASE10 LOGARITHM VALUE of 2 : ", math.log10(Number_2))

print(" \n " )

# Applying x to power of Y

print(" X^Y" )

print(" X^Y Value : ", math.pow(Number_3,Number_4))

print(" \n " )

# Applying square root determination

print(" SQUARE ROOT " )

print(" SQUARE ROOT of 4 : ", math.sqrt(Number_4))

print(" \n " )

**Output :**

#### 3. Numeric Functions

The numeric functions allow calculation of all mathematical inceptions.

Constants |
Description |

ceil(x) | The smallest integer which is very much greater than or equal to the x value is returned |

copysign(x, y) | Using the sign of y the value for x is returned |

fabs(x) | absolute value for the x is returned |

factorial(x) | factorial value of x is returned |

floor(x) | the largest integer which is very much less than or equal to the x value is returned |

fmod(x, y) | the remainder of dividing x by y value is returned |

frexp(x) | Returns the mantissa and exponent of x as the pair (m, e) |

fsum(iterable) | Returns an accurate floating-point sum of values in the iterable |

isfinite(x) | if x is not an infinity or a Nan then boolean value true is returned |

isinf(x) | if x holds a positive or negative infinity then true is returned |

isnan(x) | Returns True if x is a NaN |

gcd(x, y) | for x and y value the most greates common divisor value is returned |

remainder(x, y) | Find the remainder after dividing x by y. |

**Example :**

`import math`

#variable declaration and assignation

Number_1 = 10.5

Number_2 = 20

Number_3 = -30

Number_4 = -40.24566

Number_5 = 50

Number_6 = 60.94556

Number_7 = 70

Number_8 = 80

# Applying Ceil() function

print( " CEIL : Smallest integer which is very much greater than or equal to the x value is returned ")

print( " CEIL value : " , math.ceil(Number_1))

print( " \n " )

# Applying Copysign() function

print( " COPYSIGN : Smallest integer which is very much greater than or equal to the x value is returned ")

Temp_var1 = math.copysign(Number_2,Number_3)

print(" VALUE AFTER COPY SIGN : ", Temp_var1)

print(" \n ")

# Applying fabs() function

print( " FABS : absolute value for the x is returned ")

print(" ABSOLUTE VALUE FOR 40.24566 : ", math.fabs(Number_4))

print(" \n ")

# Applying Factorial() function

print(" FACTORIAL : factorial value of x is returned ")

print(" Factorial value for 50 : ", math.factorial(Number_5))

print(" \n ")

# Applying Floor() function

print(" FLOOR : largest integer which is very much less than or equal to the x value is returned " )

print(" Floor : ", math.floor(Number_6))

print(" \n ")

# Applying Fmod() function

print(" FMOD : remainder of divinding x by y value is returned ")

print(" Remainder : ", math.fmod(Number_6,Number_5))

print(" \n ")

# Applying Frexp() function

print( " FREXP : Returns the mantissa and exponent of x as the pair (m, e) " )

print(" MANTISSA EXPONENT : ", math.frexp(Number_7))

print( " \n " )

# Applying isfinite() function

print(" isfinite : if x is not an infinity or a Nan then boolean value true is returned ")

print(" Infinite or Nan (produces boolean output): ", math.isfinite(Number_8))

print(" \n ")

**Output:**

#### 4. Trigonometric Functions

In mathematics, the trigonometric functions are functions that are used to narrate a point of view of a right-angled triangle in means of two side lengths. they have a very large set of applications in sciences that are relative to geometry, such include solid mechanics, celestial mechanics, navigation, a lot of others. These are considered to be simple periodic functions and widely know for represents the periodic phenomena, from beginning to end of Fourier analysis.

function |
Description |

sin(x) | sine value of x in radians is determined |

cos(x) | cosine value of x in radians need to be determined |

tan(x) | tangent value of x in radians need to be determined |

degrees(x) | radian to degree conversion |

radian(x) | degree to radian conversion |

**Example :**

`import math`

print(" \n ")

print(" TRIGNOMETRIC FUNCTION USAGE " )

print(" \n ")

print(' The value of Sin(90 degree) : ' + str(math.sin(math.radians(90))))

print(' The value of cos(90 degree) : ' + str(math.cos(math.radians(90))))

print(' The value of tan(pi) : ' + str(math.tan(math.pi)))

print(" \n ")

**Output :**

### Conclusion – Math Functions in Python

Like many other programming languages python also offers a very diversified set of mathematical functions which makes it a strongly implied high-level programming language in the programming arena.

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