What is Financial Market?
- A financial market refers to a platform in which people and entities can trade (i.e., buy or sell) securities, commodities, or other goods reflecting the demand and supply of the financial assets.
- The financial market is an intermediary which helps facilitate the exchange of funds and securities, thereby mobilizing the capital between the entities. It connects the person who have excess money or free funds (i.e., investor) and the entities who need money for the business (i.e., investee).
Characteristics of Financial Market
- The essential function of a financial market is to connect the investors and borrowers. Thus, it links the two, and the market earns some commission for providing the bridge. They ensure transactions are smooth.
- Trust of the investors drives the financial markets. Hence, the regulation of financial markets ensures that the investors are always protected. The financial markets are governed by rules & regulations that differ for each market.
- The financial intermediaries are banks, NBFCs, stock exchanges, mutual funds, insurance companies, brokers to these companies, etc. These facilitate the trade between the parties.
- The financial markets are readily available for both parties. However, the timing of each financial market differs as per the type of market.
- The financial market includes securities that are marketable as well as which are non-marketable. Non-marketable securities such as fixed deposits in banks or post offices or loans given to parties are traded over the counter and not on exchange. On the other hand, marketable securities such as stocks, bonds are traded over an exchange.
- Investors may have short-term, medium-term or long-term perceptions. Therefore, a financial market is said to be effective if it can cater to the needs of each type of investor.
- Also, the financial market should be effective enough to reward the investor based on the risk assumed by the investor.
Example of Financial Market
Financial markets are widespread in everything where money & securities are involved. The financial market can be best explained through the stock market:
- For a corporate entity, the stock market is divided into primary market and secondary market. Whenever a new company lists its securities for the first time, it is done through primary markets (also known as Initial Public Offer). The company decides the IPO price based on various parameters such as demand for its product, history of promoters, prospects of the company, investor expectation of returns. This releases the capital from investors to the company.
- Once the company is listed, the company’s stocks are available for trade in the secondary market. Thus, the secondary market gives liquidity and value to the shares of the company.
- As the company performs better year on year, the value gets reflected in the increasing stock price of the company’s shares. The demand and supply forces decide the price of the shares.
Types of Financial Market
Below are the types of Financial Market
Functions of Financial Market
- It functions as an intermediary between the investor and the borrower. It ensures that trades occur smoothly.
- It mobilizes the personal savings of individuals into the productive means of the financial market. For example, an individual may earn 2% to 3% in a bank account. If the said funds are invested in the financial market in the right stock, the individual may earn a rise in share price.
- It aids in providing liquidity to stocks & other financial assets.
- Due to availability during non-business hours, the trades can be made at any time.
- The time cost of the parties to the contract is saved since the financial market links both.
- The index for each financial market becomes a benchmark for the growth of the sectors in the economy.
- It allows the demand and supply forces to take charge for deciding the price of financial securities.
Analysis of Financial Market
- The primary job of financial markets is to ensure the smooth flow of funds between various hands. An investor should quickly get the borrower and vice-e-versa. It increases the transparency of the information and forms a basis for efficient market prices.
- The investments from corporates and savings from households flow in a stream to help the economy to rise. This helps increase the production of goods & supply of services.
- Finance is the basis of an efficient economy. A financial market is a backbone for an increase in the GDP of a country.
- An increase in the financial market size implies an increase in the potential of the corporates and households. Therefore, such growth gets reflected in the country’s future economic growth as reflected in its GDP.
Benefits of Financial Market
- It acts as an intermediary between the interested parties.
- The parties can exchange the funds, securities & commodities smoothly.
- It increases the employment rate of the country.
- It becomes a benchmark for economic growth.
- Access to capital is increased.
- The financial market refers to a platform in which entities can trade financial securities.
- The various types of financial markets include money, derivatives, stock, bond, and forex.
- The primary job of financial markets is to ensure the smooth flow of funds between various hands.
- An increase in the financial market size implies an increase in the potential of the corporates and households.
- It becomes a benchmark for economic growth. Thus, if the financial market fails, the economy collapses, and the impact can be seen through an increase in the unemployment rate and recession.
Financial markets form the basis of the increase in growth, investment, commerce, trade, and opportunities. It helps allocate the capital resources efficiently and effectively. It further helps spread the capital in the appropriate streams so that all money is not blocked in one sector or industry.
This is a guide to Financial Market. Here we also discuss the definition, example, types, functions, and analysis of the Financial Market along with benefits. You may also have a look at the following articles to learn more –