Updated October 27, 2023
Essay on Agriculture – Introduction
Agriculture is a timeless ancient practice of growing crops or raising animals that started 11,700 years ago. Every day, thanks to the dedication of over 600 million farmers worldwide, we are able to enjoy delicious and healthy meals filled with fresh fruits, vegetables, and grains. It is not just farming, it’s the foundation of our existence. Agriculture is the skill of producing food resources that keep us healthy and help us survive. Countries such as China, India, and the United States are among the leading producers of key agricultural goods like wheat, rice, and cotton. In this essay on agriculture, we will explore the essential role of agriculture in feeding and nurturing our world while considering the challenges and opportunities it presents.
Essay on Agriculture – Evolution
1. Birth of Farming
A long time ago, our human ancestors were just hunters and gatherers. They didn’t farm but hunted animals and gathered fruits and plants to eat. Around 11,000 years ago, people found they could plant seeds in the ground and grow plants. This was the birth of farming.
As time passed, farming became more organized. People began to settle in one place, leading to the growth of ancient civilizations, like the Egyptians, who cultivated crops along the Nile River.
2. Evolving Agricultural Tools & Techniques
Agriculture kept evolving with inventions and discoveries. Humans built plows to help with planting and harvesting. The Chinese even developed paper money to make trading farm products easier.
The 20th century of agriculture saw a big shift as scientists developed new crop varieties that could produce more food. Farmers also started using synthetic fertilizers and pesticides to protect crops. This period is known as the Green Revolution.
3. Modern Agriculture
Today, farming has gone high-tech. We have tractors, GPS-guided planting, and even robots to help with farming. Moreover, some farmers use satellites to monitor their fields, experimenting with things like vertical farming (growing crops in stacked trays) and hydroponics (growing plants without soil).
Important Roles of Agriculture
Agriculture is the backbone of our civilization, providing us with the food we eat and many other important resources for our well-being. It is our primary food source that ensures our well-being through diverse crop production, supporting our physical and mental health.
Moreover, it also provides employment and income to millions worldwide, including farmers, laborers, and supply chain workers. Agricultural raw materials help us create useful products. For instance, we use cotton for textiles and plants for biofuels.
Agriculture shapes culture, traditions, and social structures in many societies, deeply influencing our way of life. It also reduces the impact of climate change through sustainable practices. Additionally, it plays a significant role in international trade, fostering economic interdependence by exporting surplus agricultural products.
Top Agricultural Nations Worldwide
These are the top 5 countries that have the highest agricultural exports in the world.
|Total Export 2021-22
|Major Crops Grown
|Corn, Cotton, and Soybeans
|Rice, Maize, and Wheat
|Rice, Wheat, and Cotton
|Soybeans, Coffee, and Sugar
|Wheat, Potatoes, and Barley
Agriculture Sector’s Growth and Development In India
The agriculture sector in India has played a crucial role in the country’s economic development, employment generation, and food security. Over the years, it has witnessed significant growth, as mentioned below:
- In India, farmers are transitioning from conventional crops like corn and wheat to high-value produce such as organic mangoes in Maharashtra, vibrant floriculture in Gujarat, and export-quality bananas in Andhra Pradesh.
- Farmers use modern farm machinery, high-yield seeds, and modern farming techniques, e.g., the adoption of high-yielding wheat and rice varieties in Punjab, Haryana, and Andhra Pradesh.
- India is now using Artificial Intelligence (AI) in agriculture to help farmers optimize crop yield and minimize wastage. For instance, a startup, Cropin, gives farmers real-time data that helps them analyze their produce’s quality.
- The government has built major dams and canals for improved water access, e.g., Bhakra Nangal and Sardar Sarovar Dams.
- Food processing industries have grown substantially, e.g., companies like Amul, ITC, and Patanjali.
- There is MSP (Minimum Support Prices) and crop insurance to ensure minimum crop prices and mitigate other risks.
Agriculture’s Negative Impact
Although agriculture is the heart of human survival and growth, improper agricultural practices can have several negative impacts.
When nations clear forests for big farms, it harms nature, releases climate-changing carbon, and disturbs ecosystems. For instance, in the Amazon rainforest, large forest areas are still being cleared for soybean farming, leading to deforestation.
2. Water Pollution & Wastage
Farming needs lots of water, which can cause water shortages. Moreover, farm chemicals run into the water, hurting fish and making drinking unsafe. For instance, groundwater depletion in India’s Punjab region due to irrigation is causing water scarcity. Excess fertilizer runoff in the Mississippi River Basin has created a massive “dead zone” in the Gulf of Mexico.
3. Health Impacts
Farming generates greenhouse gasses, like the beef industry contributes to greenhouse gas emissions, as cows produce methane during digestion. In addition, chemicals in farming can end up in our food and water, harming our health.
4. Harmful Agricultural Practices
Sometimes, hard farming damages soil, making it less fertile and prone to erosion. For example, intensive corn farming in the US Midwest has led to soil erosion and declining fertility. Additionally, when modern farming takes over, like the change from traditional rice farming to new methods in Japan, it can put at risk special cultural traditions.
This essay on agriculture covers how agriculture is an important and dynamic economic sector vital to human society. With an expanding global population and rising consumer demand for food and other goods, agriculture’s importance will only increase.
We hope that this EDUCBA information on “Essay on Agriculture” was beneficial to you. You can view EDUCBA’s recommended articles for more information,