Updated July 5, 2023
Introduction to Digital Image Processing Fundamentals
Digital image processing fundamentals can understand as basic steps which we follow during the processing of digital images. Image can be defined as a function that has the two-dimension value of the magnitude of the image, and this value works for making elements of the digital image. These elements include elements of the picture, elements of the image, and pixels. When we work on elements of an image for enhancing its quality or extracting some information from that image, then it can be considered Digital Image processing; so, the basic steps of digital image processing are called fundaments of digital image processing.
We will analyze some types of images first today in this article so that we will have good knowledge about different types of images and we can easily go through processing fundaments of Digital images. We will discuss the type of image on the basis of their formation on digital computers. So let us have a look at some of the types.
Types of Image on the Basis of Its Formation
We will discuss four main types of images, which are, Binary image, Black & White Image, 8-bit image, and last one is 64-bit image.
- Image formed by Binary elements: Binary elements images can understand as an image that has pixels of 0 & 1 element only and where 0 refers to black color, and 1 refers to white color. You also have heard the name Monochrome image. This is also a binary elements image.
- Image formed by Black and White elements: These types of images only have two colors that are black & white, and the whole pixel contains only these two colors for the formation of the digital images.
- Image formed by 8-bit color elements: These are grayscale elements that form an image by using 256 different types of color shades.
- Image formed by 16-bit elements: This formation comes in the colored image category and has 65 536 colors in its range. You can understand it as a high-format color range. You have heard of a color mode name which is RGB which means Red, Green, and Blue. This comes in a 16-bit element image. These were some of the most discussed image formats, and I think now you have a little bit idea about image formation. Now let us move to the fundaments of processing the digital image. For doing anything in the proper way, there must be a fundament step, and by following that fundament step result of the processing of that thing will be accurate. So for digital image processing, we have some fundamental steps, and here is a list of them.
- Acquisition of image
- Enhancement of Image
- Restoration of Image
- Processing of Color Image
- Compression of Image
- Wavelets and Multiresolution Processing of Image
- Morphological Processing of Image
- Segmentation Producers of Image
- Representation and Description of Image
- Object Detection and Recognition of Image
Now let us have a discussion on each of the fundaments of this list. The first one is the Acquisition of images.
- Acquisition of image: You can understand it as the starting step of digital image processing, where we generally do scaling of image for different purposes as well as color conversion, such as we can change it from RGB to Gray or Gray to RGB. The next one is the Enhancement of the Image.
- Enhancement of Image: This step of digital image processing is very simple and useful for extraction of the subjective purpose of the image so that we can highlight some details of the image, such as brightness, contrast, etc. The next one is the Restoration of the Image.
- Restoration of Image: It helps fully in the improvement of the appearance of an image and works as the objective purpose of the image by following some mathematical or probabilistic image degradation models. Let us move to the next one, which is the Processing of Color Images.
- Processing of Color Image: This is a very important step in concern of color image processing because it deals with the use of color images on the internet, and by this, we can do full-color processing of images. Next is Wavelets and Multi-resolution processing of Image
- Wavelets and Multi-resolution Processing of Image: This belongs to the resolution degree of the image and is used for data compression of images for representing images on different platforms. Next is the Morphological Processing of the Image
- Morphological Processing of Image: It provides some features which deal with tools that involve the extraction of image components that are used for the representation and description of shapes of images. Next is Segmentation Producers of Image
- Segmentation producers of Image: It is one of the difficult producers of digital image processing and provides partition for image objects so that we can get successful solutions for that object individually. In the list next will come the Representation and description of the Image.
- Representation and description of Image: It generally works on the output of the stage of segmentation, which means it works on the raw data of pixels which we got from the segmentation stage and transforms them into a suitable form that can easily be processed through a computer and that comes in the representation of Image element and in Description it contains extracted quantitative information. Moving to the next step, which is Object Detection and Recognition of the Image
- Object Detection and Recognition of Image: You can understand it as a process through which a label has been assigned to the object, which is formed by its descriptors and helps in the smooth working of it.
Now by going through this article good base about digital image processing fundamentals has been developed in your mind, and you can understand different terms which include this digital processing easily. Explore each fundamental of the list which we discussed in this article one by one for getting more and more knowledge about them.
This is a guide to Digital Image Processing Fundamentals. Here we also discuss the introduction and types of images on the basis of their formation, along with an explanation. You may also have a look at the following articles to learn more –