## Introduction to Bit Manipulation

Usually, a programmer works on variables of data types like int, float, double, String or collections like Array, List, ArrayList and so on. In some cases, programmers need to go much deeper into the data at the byte and the bit level to extract and manipulate the data. Languages like Java and C# let you manipulate data at the bit level, which means you have access to a specific bit in a byte. In this topic, we are going to learn about Bit Manipulation in Java.

Bit Manipulation is often required when working on Data Compression and Data Encryption where the programmer needs to extract data at the bit level to encode, decode or compress the original data. There are many other applications of Bit manipulation that we gonna see later in this article.

Java supports 3-bit shift and 4 bitwise operators to perform operations at the bit level. These operators can be used on integral types (int, short, long and byte) to perform operations at the bit level.

### Java Bitwise and Bitshift Operators

Operator |
Description |

& | Bitwise AND |

| | Bitwise OR |

~ | Bitwise Complement |

<< | Left Shift |

>> | Right Shift |

^ | Bitwise XOR |

>>> | Unsigned Right Shift |

### Operators of Bit Manipulation in Java

let’s have a look at the operators in more detail

#### 1) Bitwise OR

This is a binary operator which takes 2 operands and denoted by the symbol “| “. The bitwise operator compares the corresponding bits of the two operands. If any of the operand bit is 1 then the output is 1 if not it will be 0.

**Example**

`15 = 00001111 (In Binary)`

27 = 00011011 (In Binary)

Bitwise OR Operation of 15 and 27

00001111

| 00011011

________

00011111 = 31 (In decimal)

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**Java Program**

`class BitwiseOR {`

public static void main(String[] args) {

int operand1 = 15, operand2 = 27, output

output= operand1 | operand2;

System.out.println(output);

}

}

**Output: 31**

#### 2) Bitwise AND

This is also a bitwise operator which takes 2 operands and denoted by the symbol “&”. the bitwise operator compares the corresponding bits of the two operands. If both the operand bits are 1 then the output is 1 otherwise 0.

**Example**

`15 = 00001111 (In Binary)`

27 = 00011011 (In Binary)

Bitwise AND Operation of 15 and 27

00001111

| 00011011

________

00001011 = 11 (In decimal)

**Java Program**

`class BitwiseAND {`

public static void main(String[] args) {

int operand1 = 15, operand2 = 27, output

output= operand1 & operand2;

System.out.println(output);

}

}

**Output: 11**

#### 3) Bitwise Complement

Unlike the other two operators which we have discussed so far, this takes only one operand and denoted by the symbol “~”. This operator inverts the bit of the operand. If the operand bit is 0 then it converts it into 1 and vice-versa.

**Example**

`15 = 00001111 (In Binary)`

Bitwise complement Operation of 15

~ 00001111

________

11110000 = 240 (In decimal)

**Java Program**

`class BitwiseComplement {`

public static void main(String[] args) {

int operand= 15, output;

output= ~operand;

System.out.println(output);

}

}

**Output: -16**

Note: when you run the Java program you will get -16 as an output instead of 240 because compiler shows 2’s complement of that number i.e. negative notion of the binary number.

2’s complement of any number is equivalent to -(n+1) where n is the number whose 2’s complement is to be calculated. In our case the 2’s complement of operand 15 is -16 which is the output of the program as well.

#### 4) Bitwise XOR

Bitwise XOR is a binary operator which takes 2 operands and denotes with a symbol “^”. this operator compares the corresponding bits of the two operands. If the corresponding bits of the two operands are different that it gives 1 as an output else 0.

Bitwise XOR operator is equivalent to (Bitwise OR + Bitwise Complement)

**Example**

`15 = 00001111 (In Binary)`

27 = 00011011 (In Binary)

Bitwise XOR Operation of 15 and 27

00001111

^ 00011011

________

00010100 = 20 (In decimal)

**Java Program**

`class BitwiseXor {`

public static void main(String[] args) {

int operand1= 15, operand2 = 27, output;

output = operand1 ^ operand2;

System.out.println(output);

}

}

**Output: 20**

#### 5) Signed Left Shift

The left shift bitwise operator shift the bit pattern to the left by a certain number of times specified in the operand. The left shift operator is denoted by the symbol “<<”.

**Example**

`123 (In binary: 01111011)`

123 << 1 evaluates to 246 (In binary: 011110110)

123 << 2 evaluates to 492 (In binary: 0111101100)

123 << 3 evaluates to 984 (In binary:01111011000)

**Java Program**

`class LeftShiftOperator {`

public static void main(String[] args) {

int operand = 123;

System.out.println(operand << 1);

System.out.println(operand << 2);

System.out.println(operand << 3);

}

}

**output: 246, 492, 984**

#### 6) Signed Right Shift

Signed right shift operator works exactly the same as left shift operator just that it adds zero bits are shifted to the high order position.

**Example**

`123 (In binary: 01111011)`

123 >> 1 evaluates to 61 (In binary: 00111101)

123 >> 2 evaluates to 30 (In binary: 00011110)

123 >> 3 evaluates to 15 (In binary:00001111)

**Java Program**

`class RightShiftOperator {`

public static void main(String[] args) {

int operand = 123;

System.out.println(operand >> 1);

System.out.println(operand >> 2);

System.out.println(operand >> 3);

}

}

**Output: 61, 30, 15**

#### 7) Unsigned Right Shift

The right shift operator shifts zero to the leftmost position by the certain number of bits specified in the operand.

**Java Program**

`class UnSignedRightShiftOperator {`

public static void main(String[] args) {

int operand = 123;

System.out.println(operand >>> 1);

System.out.println(operand >>> 2);

System.out.println(operand >>> 3);

}

}

**Output**: 61, 30, 15

### Conclusion – Bit Manipulation in Java

Now that we have reached the end of the article let’s wrap up by summarizing the key point that we have discussed in this article. We have seen what a bit manipulation is and its different use cases. We have also learned the different types of bitwise operators (Bitwise AND, Bitwise OR, Bitwise Complement and Bitwise XOR) and bit shift operators (Signed Left Shift operator, signed Right Shift Operator and unsigned Right shift operators) along with an example and a sample Java program explaining individual operators.

### Recommended Articles

This is a guide to Bit Manipulation in Java . Here we discuss the Java Bitwise and Bitshift Operators in detail with examples and Java programs and its output. You may also look at the following article to learn more –