###### Overview

## About Fixed Income Instruments Training

Bond valuation and analysis is a strategy or process which is often used by the government or companies to determine the correct market value of the instrument. The valuation process factors in the current value of interest payment connected with the bond, and also the full value at the time of maturity, which is also known as the face value. Determining the fair value of a bond helps investors to find out the final return from investment and also whether it’s worth the money and time required for acquiring the bond and keep holding on to it till the time of maturity. Bond valuation may be done at home, but most investors choose to hire financial advisors for the purpose, because of their expertise and knowledge of the financial markets. But whether you do it on your own, or hire a financial expert, it’s necessary to know the basic information about the bond. This includes the amount and dates of interest payment, discount rates for payment, maturity date, and the par value of the bond at maturity.

Bonds of most companies state that the issuer i.e. seller or borrower of the instrument, agrees to pay the investor i.e. the buyer or lender, fixed interest at regular intervals, besides a lump sum at the time of maturity. The amount of interest payable is determined by multiplying the coupon rate times with the par value of the bond.

### A very important use of discounting

The current value of a bond is the sum of all future cash flows that could be derived out of it. In this sense, valuation of the instrument really becomes simple, and we like to believe it that way. All we have to do is to find the future stream of payment due on the bond, and then calculate the present value. In this way we can find the proper valuation of the bond. While it may sound simple in the theoretical sense, in practical life, estimating parameters like discount rates that are an important factor in the calculation could be quite difficult. Besides, different discount rates could lead to conflicting valuations. Bond valuation, to an extent, is actually a game to guess what the future rate of discount will be.

### The two components

Calculation of a bond’s present value is done by two components. These are as follows.

**Annuity**: A bond has a series of coupon payments due. These are commonly known as interest payments that are made periodically. Interests are usually paid every six months. In fact, companies all over the world pay interests twice every year because that’s a convention of the bond market. At the same time, it has to be understood that all bonds may have two values. The face value is the price at which the bond was issued, whereas the market value is the current price. If interest payments from a bond are not given directly, we have to compute them. The face value of the instrument is used in this regard. Remember, interest payments are calculated using the face value, not the market value. The annual rate of interest, as a result, should be converted to a six-monthly rate or any other appropriate rate, for paying investors. Then, it has to be incorporated into the formula to calculate the annuity, along with other details, for arriving at the current value of coupon payments pending.**Lump sum**: Bonds pay interests all through their lifetime. But the principal is paid back only at the end of the lifetime. The principal, thus, is a lump sum payment which may need to be discounted several years into the future. Though this payment is not received twice every year, you have to still factor in the six-monthly rate of interest to determine the present value of lump sum payment.

The final step involves adding the annuity’s present value as well as that of the lump sum. Both principal and the interest payment are thus added to arrive at the current value. The fair value of the instrument is thus derived.

Now let’s take a theoretical look at bond valuation. Here’s how the calculation is usually done.

### The process

As already said, the bond valuation process factors in interest payments i.e. cash flow, connected to the bond issue. The cash flow, typically, is realised from interest payments. Interests are paid to the holders at fixed intervals, which in turn are related to the bond’s par value or face value at the time of maturity. By considering the overall value of investment from these two angles, it’s easier for investors to determine the fair value of the instrument, and whether it’s worth their time and money. If not, another investment could be chosen.

There are several complex calculations used to arrive at the fair of a bond. Face value of the instrument is usually determined by the relative pricing approach, which compares the bond to another standard bond, often a government one. A bond’s credit rating with comparable cash flows and maturity dates could be used for determining its fair value. Arbitrage-free pricing means subtracting all cash flow payments separately. The amount is arrived at by the rate of a zero-coupon based bond, on the day on which the interest is paid.

The stochastic calculus approach, another popular option, considers possibilities of variable interest rates. It deploys a partial differential mathematical equation for determining the fair market value of the instrument.

### Variable interest

Valuing a bond could often be complicated if the interest rate connected to the investment is variable and not fixed. In such circumstances, you have to predict movements in the market and how they would impact the interest rate. Factoring those predictions to the performance of the bond can provide an informed idea regarding the amount of interest the bond will earn during its entire lifetime and the disbursement to investors. A number of investors try to figure out the worst possible scenario when the interest rate is variable or floating. They then take decisions depending upon the lowest amount of expected return after purchasing the instrument.

### Factors to consider

Bond valuation plays a key role in an investor’s decision whether to purchase the instrument or not. But there are several other factors that must be considered. All bond subscribers know that such instruments carry a much lower risk or volatility compared to other investments. Even then, an investor needs to look carefully at the company’s financial stability before taking an investment decision. Even when the fixed interest connected to a bond looks attractive, buyers may not subscribe to it if the government or the company issuing it, is considered to be risky. Yet others may prefer to first study the past and present market trends on interest rates to determine if the value of the bond would decrease or increase with time. ** **

### Fixed Income Instruments Course Description

The bond valuation training course is as follows.

**Introduction to fixed income instrument**: You are introduced to fixed income instruments in this section. Subjects include bond market and instruments, treasury yields, studying the relation between yield and price, how to value treasury bonds, and pricing of bonds.

**Understanding instruments and yield**: This section is divided into five parts. Topics covered include zero coupon treasury bills and their valuation, understanding the spot rate, and zero coupon bond pricing.

**Duration and convexity**: Concepts of duration and convexity are covered in this section in two parts.

### Course Pre-requisites

A career in bond analysis and valuation calls for at least a bachelor’s degree in finance, accounting or business administration. Many employers prefer to hire analyst graduates with an MBA from a recognised university. In school, students with major in statistics, economics, budgeting, and financial analysis may hold an edge in the recruitment process.

Bond valuation experts and analysts should ideally have strong analytical, mathematical, and problem solving skills. Individuals wanting to work as a bond analyst should have superb communication skills. This is an important trait that companies look for because bond analysts have to be often personally present and explain intricate and complicated financial strategies to clients and colleagues. They must be organised, confident and have an eye for detail. The finance and economic sector is fully dependent on computers these days. So bond analysts must have a thorough knowledge of reading and operating financial software programs.

The global employment outlook for bond analysts is extremely positive in the mid to long term. Industry experts have predicted the sector to grow at around 12% from 2014-24, courtesy the increasing complexity of investments and the burgeoning financial sector. Regulations are more rigid these days and bond offers have to be submitted to the relevant authorities for approval before they are introduced into the market. Bond analysts are expected to provide financial research and analysis.

### Learning Objectives

At the end of the training, participants would gain a wider understanding about the following.

- Detailed bond market analysis including currency, credit quality, sector and maturity
- Macroeconomic factors and their influence on the bond market
- Understanding the bond yield curves and all the information they contain
- Demand and supply factors and their influence on bond yield and price
- Understanding the key risk metrics of the bond market i.e. convexity and modified duration
- Analysis of risks using modified duration and convexity
- Current bond investment and trading strategies
- How a bond works and terms used in the bond market
- The asset liability management process
- The process of issuing bonds and related costs
- How are swaps used for bonds from both the assets and liabilities perspective
- What are structured bonds and how they work
- How credit derivatives and collateral debt obligations work

### Target audience

The course is mainly aimed towards risk managers, financial analysts, pension fund managers, bond traders and dealers, corporate treasurers, general investors, new financial market employees, settlement staff, brokers working in the domestic and global bond market, and anyone who wants to gain knowledge about bond analysis and valuation.

### FAQs: Some general questions

**When can I begin this course?**

All our courses are self-study and self-paced. You can begin them whenever you want. We deliver structured video tutorials and you can learn at your own pace. Just make sure you have the proper background while selecting a course.

**Who are your instructors?**

All our instructors are industry professionals. They are experts in their own field. So when you select a course, you get to learn from the top professionals.

**Do you provide any job guarantee?**

No. We train participants to become successful in their profession. We extend all out help to them in this regard. The calibre of our trainees is such they don’t require any job guarantee. Our courses open a world of opportunities for them.

**How many courses does EduCba offer?**

We offer over 1,700 courses, each of them aimed at a particular set of professionals. All of them have benefitted from their chosen course and are successfully placed in several top organisations.

### Testimonials

**Howard Lean**

“Every part of the training course was interesting. There was not a single boring moment. The instructors had immense knowledge and experience of their topic. The language of teaching was simple and easy to understand.”

**Melina Price**

“The instructors actively discussed the courseware and they cited practical examples of bond valuation. They encouraged active participation from the students.”

**Sunaina Agarwal**

“What I like most of the EduCba course was that it covered all the points involved in bond valuation. The instructors taught through practical examples that helped participants to better understand the subject. Their thorough and professional knowledge was really helpful.”

### Career benefits of learning Fixed Income

Once you successfully complete the course, you’ll be able to do the following.

- Describe and calculate the present and future value of a bond
- Determine the price of a bond and discuss the yield conventions
- Explain the industry day count and interest calculation conventions
- Determine and apply the duration and money value of basis points
- Explain and deploy convexity and also construct the yield curve of a particular bond
- Calculate as well as explain the applications of forward and spot curves

Where do our learners come from? |

Professionals from around the world have benefited from eduCBA’s Fixed Income Instruments – Understanding Instruments & Yield courses. Some of the top places that our learners come from include New York, Dubai, San Francisco, Bay Area, New Jersey, Houston, Seattle, Toronto, London, Berlin, UAE, Chicago, UK, Hong Kong, Singapore, Australia, New Zealand, India, Bangalore, New Delhi, Mumbai, Pune, Kolkata, Hyderabad and Gurgaon among many. |