Difference Between Spring and Struts
Spring is referred to as Spring framework, which is used for Java platform or used in Java language. It is also called an application framework that is used by Java application to handle infrastructure and implement Inversion of control (IOC) and dependency injection (DI). The Spring framework features are used to develop web applications.
Spring framework was developed by Pivotal Software. It was initially released in the year 2002. It was written in Java. It supports the Java Virtual Machine (JVM) platforms only. It supports the cross-platform operating systems. Spring platform provides some advantage to develop an application for developers like execute of java method in database transaction and remote procedure without having to deal with transaction APIs, and local java method management operation or message handler without using APIs.
Struts are referred to like the open source framework for developing the Java-based web applications. It extends Java Servlet API and employs MVC architecture. It enables you to create extensible, maintainable and flexible web-based applications on standard technologies like JSP pages, JavaBeans and XML.
Struts have the important features like configurable MVC components, POJO based actions, AJAX support, Integration support, various result types, various tag support, Theme and template support. It has core components like interceptors, Value stack, action context, action invocation, OGNL. The architecture of struts consists of a controller, Action proxy, action mapper, configuration Manager, action invocation, interceptor, action, result etc.
The functionality or way of the function is also different for both struts and spring. In Spring MVC, there is a need of spring core to run the spring MVC and it is model view architecture where the whole process is controlled by dispatcher servlet. But in struts, taking and processing the object is done through an action object. The strut is one of the most powerful Java application frameworks that can be used in a variety of Java applications. Spring utilizes the dependency injection to achieve simple and enhance the testability.
Head To Head Comparison Between Spring and Struts (Infographics)
Below is the top 6 difference between Spring and Struts
Key Differences Between Spring and Struts
Both Spring vs Struts are popular choices in the market; let us discuss some of the major Difference:
- Spring framework is said to be non-invasive that means it does not force a developer to extend or implement their class or interface given by spring API. Struts are referred to as invasive and it forces the developer to extend the class from the base class provided by struts API.
- Spring MVC provides the tags for basic HTML form tags but struts provide many other JSF styled complex and composite tags.
- Spring framework has been used because of advantages like transaction management, support for messaging, support of integration with other frameworks. Strut framework is being used because of excellent support for tag library, which has wide industry acceptance and easy to integrate with other client-side technologies.
- Spring allows JSP, Velocity, free maker, excel and pdf for viewing components. Struts allow only JSP to view components.
- Spring MVC provides more handler mappings. Struts don’t have specific handler mappings but use action mappings.
- Spring clears the module division between model, view, and controller but struts mix the controller and model.
- Spring gives built-in middleware services like transaction, logging, connection pooling etc. Struts do not give built-in middleware services.
- Spring provided the containers by activating classes but struts explicitly configured classes.
- Spring MVC code is easier to test comparatively. Strut code is less testable compared to Spring.
- Spring has independent layers that make easy to integrate with other frameworks but in struts, it is difficult to achieve the same with ease.
Spring vs Struts Comparison Table
Below is the topmost comparison between Spring vs Struts:
|The basis of comparison||
|Definition||It is an application framework used to implement IOC and DI.||It is open source framework used to extend Java servlet API and MVC framework.|
|Architecture||It is layered architecture||It is not layered architecture.|
|Framework||It is a lightweight framework.||It is a heavyweight framework.|
|Integrating||It provides easy integration with ORM and JDBC technologies.||It integrated with technologies but need to do manual coding.|
|Flexible||Spring MVC is more flexible comparatively.||It is less flexible compared to Spring.|
|Coupling||It is loosely coupled.||It is tightly coupled.|
Spring vs strut features are different and both are widely used for developing web applications. Spring framework is more efficient than struts but sometimes spring framework provides complexity but in struts, everything is simple due to its easy and maintainable design. Spring framework has more functionality than struts. Spring MVC is mainly used because it is more secure and better performance. Spring framework is getting upgraded mainly whereas struts are not getting upgraded now. Because of spring framework is very flexible and provides better performance, it is being used on various platforms. Spring framework has been performing better in web applications as compared to struts due to its independent layer architecture and clear difference between model, view, and controller but it is not the same in struts. Spring security is one of the best ways to protect the application. Spring MVC is used for developing the REST API, client-server model, service-oriented architecture (SOA) and for database handling as well. Spring MVC framework is more efficient to handle the request than struts.
Spring vs Struts both are large and wide java frameworks. Spring framework has only a spring MVC module but strut is used to make the enterprise web applications. Spring does not provide a framework for implementing the business domain and logic but the developers create a controller and view for the application. Spring MVC is mainly used for creating a robust application.
Strut framework gives the simplified design and in a strut, the plug-in can be used easily as compared to spring. Strut also simplified the action form and annotations. It has far better than tag features. It provides support to AJAX and multiple view options feature makes strut better to use. In struts, actions are created or initiated every time when a request is made whereas in spring MVC the controllers are created only once stored in memory and shared among all the requests. The framework can be selected on the basis of the client requirements or available resources.
This has been a guide to the top difference between Spring vs Struts. Here we also discuss the key differences with infographics and comparison table. You may also have a look at the following Spring vs Struts articles to learn more –
- Java EE vs Spring
- Java Spring Interview Questions
- Spring vs Spring Boot
- Spring vs Hibernate
- Guide to Hibernate Interview Questions