Introduction to Android
Android is an open source and Linux based mobile device operating system, such as tablets and smartphones. Open Handset Alliance developed the android and it is led by big companies such as Google and more. It provides a unified approach to mobile application development that enables developers to build only for Android and allow their apps to run on different Android-enabled devices. The Android code is licensed under open source and free software. Under the GNU General Public License update, Google publishes much of the code under the Apache License update 2.0 and the rest, updates Linux kernel.
Architecture of Android
It is an operating system and a part stack divided into four main layers such as:
1. Application Framework
The frame layer of applications offers many resources for applications such as resource managers, windows managers, package managers, view systems etc. These services can be used in their application by the Application Developers.
2. Linux Kernel
It supports a broad variety of hardware drivers using Linux ‘ strong kernel. The kernel is the core of the OS that handles program input and output requests. This includes basic system features such as process management, device management such as camera, memory management, keypad, monitor, etc. Linux is good to network, and interface to peripheral hardware is not required. The kernel itself does not explicitly communicate with the user, but rather communicates with the shell and other programs as well as the system’s hardware.
There is a collection of libraries on top of the Linux kernel like a web browser, such as a web kit, library libc, for example. The libraries are used for audio and video playback and recording. The SQLite is a database that is ideal for storing and sharing software. Internet security etc is the responsibility of SSL libraries.
3. Android Runtime
The main component called the Dalvik Virtual Machine is the android runtime, which is like a virtual java machine. It has been specially designed for android. The Dalvik VM in the Android operating system is the virtual process machine. Apps on Android devices are used in applications. The Dalvik VM uses Linux core features such as memory management and a java-language multi Threading mechanism. The Dalvik VM can run your own process in any Android program. The Dalvik VM will run the .dex scripts.
Versions of Android
There are several versions of Android since the initial release, and that’s why there are significant variations if you have many Android devices. Below is a list of every big version of Android with its desert. So the first android was released in the year of September 2008 and the second android which was released on April 2008 name of that android is Cupcake.
- Version 1.5 was released on April 2009 and the name was given Cupcake.
- Version 1.6 was released on September 2009 and the name was given Donut.
- Version 2.0 was released on October 2009 and the name was given Eclair.
- Version 2.1 was released on January 2010 and the name was given Eclair.
- Version 2.2 was released on may 2010 and the name was given Froyo.
- Version 2.3 was released on December 2010 and the name was given Gingerbread.
- Version 3.0 was released on September 2011 and the name was given Honeycomb.
- Version 3.1 was released on may 2011 and the name was given honeycomb.
- Version 3.2 was released on July 2011 and the name was given honeycomb.
- Version 4.0 was released on October 2011 and the name was given Ice Cream Sandwich.
- Version 4.1 was released on July 2012 and the name was given Jelly bean.
- Version 4.2 was released on November 2012 and the name was given Jelly bean.
- Version 4.3 was released on July 2013 and the name was given honeycomb.
- Version 4.4 was released on October 2013 and the name was given KitKat.
- Version 5.0 was released on November 2014 and the name was given Lollipop.
- Version 6.0 was released on October 2015 and the name was given Marshmallow.
- Version 7.0 was released on August 2016 and the name was given Nougat.
- Version 8.0 was released on August 2017 and the name was given Oreo.
- Version 9.0 was released on November 2019 and the name was given Pie.
Advantages of Android
Below are the advantages of Android:
- Android provides several of its technologies, such as simple web browsing and e-mail and a touchscreen menu.
- Android offers a range of technology including simple web surfing, email and touchscreen menus.
- Depending on the specific model of your phone used, more advanced features are available. Nearly all versions, however, have a camera for satellite navigation images and videos as well as GPS.
- Android is an open source program and is thus much simpler to change and customize than iOS on the iPhone. Even less restrictive is the app store.
This is a guide to What is Android?. Here we discuss Introduction to android and its architecture along with its various versions and advantages. You can also go through our other suggested articles to learn more –