What is the Full Form of UNO?
The full form of UNO is the United Nations Organization, founded on October 24, 1945, as a global alliance of sovereign and independent nations. As a result of World War II, the United Nations Organization was established to preserve peace and prevent nations from engaging in war and devastation. A group of 51 nations came together to ensure international security and peace. They agreed to the Organization’s formation by ratifying the United Nations Charter. In addition to its headquarters in New York City, the United Nations has offices in Geneva, Nairobi, The Hague, and Vienna.
History of UNO
Despite the League of Nations difficulties in mediating disputes and ensuring global peace and security before World War II, the significant Allied powers agreed during the war to create a new global organization to help manage affairs internationally. This agreement formalizes in August 1941, when British Prime Minister Winston Churchill and American President Franklin D. Roosevelt signed the Atlantic Charter. The nations allied against Italy, Germany, and Japan were initially referred to as the United Nations. Then, on January 1, 1942, 26 nations signed the United Nations Declaration, which outlined the Allies’ war objectives.
Objective of UNO
The Organization’s special international status and the authority granted by its founding Charter enable it to act on a wide range of issues and provide a forum for its Member States to express their views.
The United Nations has four primary goals:
- The United Nations Organization (UNO) ‘s goals are to maintain international peace and security, advance the world’s welfare, and work towards achieving these goals through cooperative international action.
- The United Nations Organization promotes societal, economic, and cultural development cooperation.
- The UN’s goal is to recognize all the basic rights of the people of all the member countries.
- The UN also seeks to strengthen government-to-government relations based on equality and self-determination.
- Last but not least, UNO works as a center point and coordinates all the national initiatives that work towards a common goal.
Achievements of UNO
The United Nations has faced its fair share of challenges throughout its existence. The challenges are now complex and multifaceted, making it difficult for the UN to promote global peace. Below are some of the significant achievements of UNO:
- The UN has significantly contributed to peace and security by resolving various issues, primarily political conflicts by the Security Council, legal disputes by the International Court of Justice, and others by particular agencies.
- The United Nations has successfully resolved many international conflicts and maintained peace through diplomatic negotiations.
- It settled disputes between Iran and Iraq, Israel and Palestine, and the withdrawal of Soviet forces from Afghanistan.
- It signed numerous nuclear test ban treaties, including the NTBT and CTBT.
- The United Nations held the Rio de Janeiro Environment and Development Conference in 1992.
- At this conference, all countries endorsed Agenda 21, a plan to promote economic growth while protecting natural resources.
- The United Nations established the International Research and Training Institute for Women.
- The UN Development Fund for Women (UNIFEM) and the International Research and Training Institute for the Advancement of Women have supported programs and projects in over 100 countries to raise the standard of living for women (INSTRAW).
- It has aided numerous initiatives to improve the living conditions of women in over 100 countries.
- During the Suez Canal Crisis in 1956, the UNO was critical. It forced Israel, France, and the United Kingdom to withdraw their troops from Egypt. The UN also brought an end to the Korean and Vietnam Wars.
Member States of the United Nations
According to the Charter, UN membership is open to “all peace-loving States that acknowledge the obligations contained in the United Nations Charter and, in the opinion of the Organization, are capable of carrying out these obligations.” Only other states and governments have the authority to recognize or deny the establishment of a government of any new state.
The General Assembly decides whether or not to admit a state as a member of the UN based on the Security Council’s recommendation. In a nutshell, the steps for the same are as follows:
- The State sends a formal letter to the Secretary-General acknowledging its acceptance of the Charter’s obligations, along with an application.
- The Security Council is reviewing the application. If none of the council’s five permanent members voted against the application, 9 of the 15 members must approve any recommendation for admission.
- The recommendation will communicate to the General Assembly. To admit a new state, the Assembly must vote by a two-thirds majority if the council will recommend admission.
- Membership is effective as of the date the admission resolution approve.
Within the United Nations, several specialized agencies operate as independent organizations. Others associated with the League of Nations emerged when the United Nations was established or even later. Some date back to before World War I. Some of the most well-known of these organizations, which have headquarters around the world, are the World Health Organization (WHO), which is the United Nations’ leading authority on international health, the International Monetary Fund (IMF), which supports economic growth, the International Labor Organization (ILO), which establishes international labor standards, and the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization.
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